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Vazhakulam Pineapple

(Geographical Indication No. 130 Registered at Chennai

on 4th September 2009 under Agricultural-Horticultural Product)

Go to VAZHAKULAM and you’ll see nothing but pineapples. About an hour’s drive from Kochi, Vazhakulam is the centre of pineapple trade in Kerala, and India. From here, 80 per cent of Kerala’s pineapple harvest travels to the rest of the country, resulting in an annual turnover of Rs 200 to 250 crores.

It was in the 1940s that the people of Vazhakulam began growing pineapples on a small scale. With favourable climatic conditions producing bumper crops, the cultivation turned commercial 10 years later. The variety grown was Kew, ideal for the processing industry. Jam and squash producing companies turned to Vazhakulam for their pulp. As the area under cultivation grew, the farmers formed cooperatives that would give them better bargaining opportunities. In 1990, with the creation of The Pineapple Farmer’s Association of Vazhakulam, the cooperatives were brought under a single umbrella. Five years later, the state government pitched in with a research station.

The station’s role is largely to introduce new management practices and technology that will help the crop. But it also has a one on one interaction with the farmer and provides necessary technical information to banks for loans. With such an organised system in place, the growth in Vazhakulam’s pineapple sector has been tremendous.

Along the way many farmers switched to the Mauritius variety, a category that, (despite its shorter) WITH A shelf life of 15 to 20 days, is in demand. Consumed as fresh fruit, much of the produce goes to the metropolis of Mumbai (from where a major chunk is exported to countries in the Gulf).  September-October, which is the Ramzan period, is peak season for Vazhakkulam’s farmers. During this time, 1,000 tonnes of the fruit are transported to Mumbai every day.

The world’s leading producer of pineapples is Thailand; India stands fifth. But Vazhakulam’s farmers are aiming high. They intend taking India to the top spot.

Vazhakulam area is ideally suited for the production of the pineapple for table purpose. The management practice to maintain its excellent fruit quality was known to the farmers in this area for the past several decades. Gradually, Vazhakulam Pineapple along with the management practice spread to other district areas having similar soil and climatic factors. Now it is grown in about 10000 ha. in the districts of Ernakulam, Kottayam, parts of Pathanamthitta dist. and in the lower elevation areas of Idukki district. Pineapple produced in these areas by maintaining its quality, are brought to the Vazhakulam market and transported to all the places in India, as Vazhakulam Pineapple. Vazhakulam is the biggest pineapple market in India.

Pineapple has been commercially grown in Vazhakulam area for more than 50 years for its excellent fruit for fresh consumption. Vazhakulam area is ideally suited for the production of pineapple for table purpose. Planting is done in almost all the months, except during the heavy monsoon days. Hence, fruits are available round the year. Vazhakulam is considered as the biggest pineapple market in India from where the fruit is being transported to all the South Indian states and most of the North Indian states. It is grown in the districts of Ernakulam, Kottayam, Pathanamthitta and the low elevation areas of Idukki district in Kerala. It is the centre of pineapple trade in Kerala and India. Vazhakulam pineapple was Registered as Geographical Indication (GI) No. 130 under Agricultural-Horticultural product at the GI Registry, Chennai on 4th September 2009. GI registration is the process of endorsing brand protection under WTO guidelines to the producers of any product known for quality and marketed in the label of a geographic area. The registered proprietors of the intellectual property attached to Vazhakulam Pineapple are Nadukkara Agro Processing Co. Ltd (NAPCL), Avoly P.O., Muvattupuzha-686677; The Kerala Agricultural University, Vellanikkara, KAU Post, Thrissur-680656 and Pineapple Farmers’ Association Vazhakulam-686670, Muvattupuzha, Kerala. Vazhakulam pineapple locally known as ‘Kannara’ is a Mauritius variety coming under the species Ananas comosus. The plant is about 85-90 cm height, leaves spiny, gives yield within 12-13 months. The average fruit weight is 1.2-1.4kg. The fruit has a pleasant aroma, slightly conical in shape, fruit ‘eyes’ deeply placed, fruit flesh is crisp and golden yellow in colour, juice is sweet with 14-16° brix and its acidity is 0.50 - 0.70%. The fruit withstands post harvest handling damages and long distance transport. Vazhakulam pineapple is unique in aroma, flavour and sweetness due to its high sugar content and low acidity. The GI registration has boosted the export of pineapple from the state considerably, besides the high reputation fetching premium price in the international market.



Applications numbers 130 and 141 filed by


Nadukkara Agro Processing Company Ltd.(NAPCL), Nadukkara, Avoly P.O., Muvattupuzha-686 677, Kerala,


and The Kerala Agricultural University, Vellanikkara, KAU Post, Thrissur-680656, Kerala


and The President, The Pineapple Farmers Association, Reg. No. ER 95/90, Vazhakulam- 686670, Muvattupuzha, Kerala, India


for registration in Part A of VAZHAKULAM PINEAPPLE are merged together to proceed as a single application as per the order of Registrar of Geographical Indications dated 21-10-2008 under Application No. 130 in respect of Horticulture Product – Pineapple falling under Class 31 is hereby advertised as accepted under sub-section (1) of section 13 of Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999.


Applicant : Nadukkara Agro Processing Company Ltd.(NAPCL)

Kerala Agricultural University and

Pineapple Farmers Association, Vazhakulam.


Address : Nadukkara Agro Processing Company Ltd.(NAPCL)

Nadukkara, Avoly P.O.,

Muvattupuzha-686 677,

Kerala, India


The Kerala Agricultural University,

Vellanikkara, KAU Post,

Thrissur-680656, Kerala


The President, The Pineapple Farmers Association,

Reg. No. ER 95/90,

Vazhakulam-686670, Muvattupuzha, Kerala.


Geographical Indication : VAZHAKULAM PINEAPPLE

Class : 31

Goods : Horticulture Product – Pineapple


(A) Name of the applicant : Nadukkara Agro Processing Company Ltd.(NAPCL)

Kerala Agricultural University and

Pineapple Farmers Association, Vazhakulam.


(B) Address : Nadukkara Agro Processing Company Ltd.(NAPCL)

Nadukkara, Avoly P.O.,

Muvattupuzha-686 677,

Kerala, India


The Kerala Agricultural University,

Vellanikkara, KAU Post,

Thrissur-680656, Kerala


The President, The Pineapple Farmers Association,

Reg. No. ER 95/90,

Vazhakulam-686670, Muvattupuzha, Kerala


(C) List of association of persons / Producers / organization / Authority : To be provided upon request


(D) Type of goods : Horticultural product falling in class 31-Pineapple


(E) Specifications:

Vazhakulam pineapple locally known as ‘Kannara’ comes under the species Ananas comosus. The average fruit weight is 1300-1600gms. The fruit is having a pleasant aroma, have a slightly conical shape, fruit ‘eyes’ deeply placed, fruit flesh is crisp and golden yellow in colour, juice is sweet with 14-16 o brix and its acidity is 0.50 - 0.70%. It is a good source of carotene, vitamins minerals and energy.


(F) Name of the Geographical Indication : VAZHAKULAM PINEAPPLE


(G) Description of Goods:

Pineapple is a commercial pineapple fruit crop of India. This is an exquisite multiple fruit in existence, with cylindrical and oblong shape tapering at top

resembles a pinecone having myriad health giving properties.


Vazhakulam pineapple belongs to Queen Cultivar suited for table purpose.

Kingdom - Vegetable / plant

Sub Kingdom - Spermatophyta

Class - Angiospermae

Sub class - Monocotyledons

Order - Farinosae

Family - Bromeliaceae

Genera - Ananas

Species - A. comosus

Habit : herbaceous perennial, self sterile monocotyledonous plant of about 90-100 cm in height, with spreading leaves.


Root system : adventitious dense and shallow.


Stem: Short thick, 15-25 cm long, narrow, at the base and wider at the top with short peduncles.


Leaves: long and narrow, arranged in a right or left handed spiral on a short stem, forming a rosette.


Inflorescence: compact inflorescence; 100-200 reddish purple flowers and self sterile.


Seeds: seedless when grown on pure stand. When natural or cross pollination occurs between cultivars and species, 2000-3000 every hard seeds may be produced.


(H) Geographical area of Production and Map as shown in page no 81.

The Vazhakulam Pineapple area spreads in about 45 Km north, 40 Km west, 35 km east and 110 km South from Vazhakulam, the heart land of Vazhakulam



List of Grama Panchayats coming under the Production Area of Vazhakulam Pineapple









  1. Manjalloor

  2. Avoly

  3. Ayavana

  4. Arakuzha

  5. Kalloorkad

  6. Muvattupuzha

  7. Paipra

  8. Maradi

  9. Valakom

10. Kothamangalam

11. Nellikuzhy

12. Kottapady

13. Pindimana

14. Keerampara

15. Kuttampuzha

16. Kavalangad

17. Varapetty

18. Pothanicad

19. Pallarimangalam

20. Paingottoor

21. Asamannoor

22. Vengoor

23. Mudakuzha

24. Koovapady

25. Rayamangalam

26. Kalady

27. Malayattoor-Neeleswaram

28. Ayyampuzha

29. South Vazhakulam

30. Vengola

31. Kizhakambalam

32. Poothrikka

33. Thiruvaniyoor

34. Puthencruz-Vadavukode

35. Mazhuvannoor

36. Iykaranad

37. Kunnathunad

38. Elanji

39. Piravom

40. Thirumarady

41. Koothattukulam

42. Palakuzha

43. Maneed

44. Pampakuda

45. Ramamangalam

46. Edakkattuvayal

47. Mulanthuruthy

48. Amballoor 

49. Kumaramangalam

50. Thodupuzha

51. Manacad

52. Edavetty

53. Muttom

54. Purapuzha

55. Karimkunnam

56. Alakode

57. Velliamattom

58. Kudayathur

59. Karimannoor

60. Udumbannoor

61. Vannapuram

62. Kodikulam

63. Arakulam 


64. Bharananganam

65. Karur

66. Kozhuvanal

67. Kadanad

68. Meenachil

69. Mutholi

70. Melukavu

71. Munnilavu

72. Poonjar

73. Eerattupetta

74. Poonjar-Thekkekara

75. Thalapulam

76. Theekoi

77. Thalanadu

78. Thidanadu

79. Kanjirapally

80. Erumely

81. Mundakayam

82. Parathode

83. Koottickal

84. Manimala

85. Koruthode

86. Chirackakadavu

87. Kangazha

88. Nedumkunnam

89. Vellavoor

90. Vazhoor

91. Ayarkunnam

92. Vijayapuram

93. Akalakunnam

94. Kooropada

95. Pambady

96. Pallikkathode

97. Veliyannoor

98. Kuravilangad

99. Uzhavoor

100. Ramapuram

101. Njeezhoor

102. Thalayolaparambu

103. Velloor


104. Ranni

105. Vadaserikkara

106. Chittar

107. Seethathode

108. Naranammoozhi

109. Vechoochira

110. Konni

111. Aruvapulam

112. Pramadom

113. Mylapra

114. Vallikode

115. Thannithode

116. Malayalapuzha



(I) Proof of origin (Historical records):

Pineapple cultivation in Kerala is not recorded properly. But records revealed that Vazhakulam market was established as a pineapple market only from 1945 onwards. In the book “Vazhakulam oru charitra veekshanam” (Malayalam) (History of Vazhakulam) published by Sri. O.M.Varghese, Olickal in 1985, it is stated that

pineapple is controlling the Vazhakulam market since 1945.


(J) Method of Production:

Soil and climate

Pineapple can be grown in well drained slightly acidic soil. It prefers good sunlight than shaded condition. However it can be grown in well spaced coconut

plantations where it gets filtered light. In the initial three years of rubber plantations, the shade is practically nil, hence pineapple can be grown in rubber as

an intercrop during its initial three years of life. Places getting summer showers, apart from rainy seasons, and having high humidity are good for pineapple

cultivation. If there is irrigation facility, irrigation can be given in summer months.



Pineapple is propagated through suckers.


Planting and Land preparation

Main planting season is April-May and August-September months. However, planting can also be done throughout the year except during the heavy continuous

rainy period in June- July, if irrigation facility is available. Ploughing or digging the soil at a depth of 30 cm is done initially. Planting is done in paired rows with a

spacing of 45 cm between rows and 30 cm between plants in a row. Spacing between paired rows is 150 cm.


Land preparation:

Pure Crop:

Prepares the land by digging the area to be planted at 90 cm width in rows/ strips, leaving the interspaces undisturbed. However, ploughing can be adopted in level

land. Planting is done in paired rows of 45 cm distance between rows and 30 cm between suckers. Suckers may be planted in triangular method in the paired rows.

Inter space between the paired rows is kept at 150 cm. Contour planting may be adopted in sloppy areas.


Inter Cropping:

Intercropping in coconut garden: Land preparation, spacing and planting are the same as described above. There can be three paired- rows in between two rows of

coconut. Intercropping in rubber plantation: System of planting is in paired rows at 45 x 30 cm. There will be only one paired row of pineapple in between two

rows of rubber.


Wetlands / lowlands:

Pineapple is highly sensitive to water stagnation and high moisture regimes. Hence it is important to provide good drainage, if grown in wet lands. In paddy

lands, pineapple is planted in paired rows at 45 x 30 cm spacing on ridges taken at 60-90 cm height, depending on the water table and drainage requirement. The

ridges are separated by drainage channels having 60 cm width. The width of the ridges varies from 120-150 cm. wherever water stagnation and poor drainage are

expected, a wider and deeper channels is given in between ridges.


Selection of Suckers:

The suckers will be graded into small, large etc and uniform suckers are planted separately so as to facilitate uniform management. Suckers are selected from

disease and pest free healthy plants. Suckers are to be graded into those having 500-750 g and 750-1000 g. The graded suckers are planted in different blocks or

plots, to get uniformity in growth and flowering. Bigger sucker give early yield.



At the time of planting, about 500 g of dried cowdung and 20 g of rock phosphate is applied in pits. There after, N and K are applied within 40-50 days of planting

@ 2 g each per plant. This dose is repeated two more times at an interval of 50-60 days. The fourth dose is applied 70-80 days after ethephon application for

uniform flowering. Urea and Muriate of Potash is used as source of N and K.


Weed control:

Weeds are controlled either by hand weeding or by application of weedicide. If hand weeding is practiced, weeds are removed as and when required. When

weedicides are used, the first application is done within 30 days of planting. A solution of Diurone @ 2g per litre of water is prepared and sprayed in moist soil.

Care is taken so that weedicides do not fall on the pineapple plant. There after, weeds are controlled in interspaces by spraying Paraquat solution by mixing 4 ml

of the formulation in one litre water. Extreme care is taken so that the weedcides do not fall on pineapple. Weeds are controlled within rows by hand weeding.


Plant protection:

Diseases- Heart rot and root rot are the important diseases observed for which drenching of plant base with Mancozeb @ 2 g per litre of water is followed.

Pests- Mealy bug is the main pest observed for which drenching of root zone with chlorpyriphos @ 2.5 ml per litre of water is followed.


Techniques for uniform flowering:

For the uniform flowering of pineapple, 25 ppm of ethephon is applied in physiologically mature plant. The plant will attain this growth normally by 7-8

months after planting. The fruits will be harvested according to the requirement of the market. Green fruits for distant markets are harvested at the stage of 120- 

125 days after ethephon application. Ripe fruits for nearby markets will be harvested at 130 days after ethephon application.


Ratoon cropping:

After the first year harvest, earthing up will be done and the crop will be maintained for two more years as a ratoon crop during this period 2 more harvests

will be taken.


Yield: Average weight expected is 1.5- 2 Kg for first year; 1.2-1.5 Kg during second year; 800 g -1 Kg during third year.


(K) Uniqueness:

Vazhakulam pineapple surpasses all owing to its characteristics such as delicious taste and unique aroma and flavour. The flesh is golden yellow and crisp. The

fruit juice is having 14-16°Brix and its acidity is 0.50 - 0.70%. It is a good source of carotene, vitamins minerals and energy. The unique and complex combination of agro-climatic conditions prevailing in the region, pineapple produced in the said region are having distinctive and naturally occurring characteristics, which have won the patronage and recognition of discerning consumers all over Kerala, India and world. If it is grown in some other regions the characteristic qualities get diluted and affect the keeping quality. Low pest and disease incidence and hence less chemical pesticide used. Farmers are following cultivation practices as per FLO Standards which does not permit the use of chemical pesticides banned by World Health Organization. This indicates that Vazhakulam pineapples are almost free from Hazardous chemicals.


(L) Inspection body:

Kerala Agricultural University (KAU) has agreed to be the inspection Body to regulate the quality standard parameters of the application. The method of production and cultivation practices are strictly followed as per the standard package of practices recommended by Kerala Agricultural University (KAU) and cultivation practices as per FLO Standards.



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Quality People, Infrastructure & Work Culture for Quality Technology, Products & Services. Merit alone counts for quality suitable for the purpose. One has know-how only when it is proven in real life.Copyright © 2010 Pineapple Research Station, Kerala Agricultural University. Best viewed in IE 5.5 or above, 1024x768 screen, scripts enabled. Last modified: 23 Jun 2014. Webmaster: Dr. P. P. Joy, Associate Professor & Head, Pineapple Research Station (Kerala  Agricultural  University), Vazhakulam, Muvattupuzha, Ernakulam District, Kerala, India, PIN-686 670, Tel. & Fax: +91 485 2260832, Cell: +919446010905, E-mail: Constructive comments, suggestions and criticisms are most welcome and please mail to