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kpnc hnfkwcWw

kkyfpw IoSfpw Xnep _ԯn\v hfsctbsd ]gapWvSv.  Imemcn an sNSnIfpw IoSsXnsc {]hnm Ignhp cmkhkvXp kzbw  DXv]mZnnm XpSn.  ChbmWv ImeLns Bhiyambn amdnb kkyP\yambn IoS\min\nI.

hnIkzc cmPyfn IoS\nb{Wn C`napJoIcnp imkv{Xobhpw kmnIhpamb shphnfnI \nch[nbmWv. temInse samw P\kwJybpsS F]tXmfw iXam\w hnIkzc cmPyfnemWpXv.  ChnSfn hnpsImWvSncnp P\scpns\mnv ImjntImXv]mZ\w hnntWvSXns BhiyIX FSpp]dtbWvSXn. 

Fm C\phnphcp IoS\min\nIfp]tbmKnp IoS\nb{W am P\XbpsS BtcmKyn\v lm\nIchpw ]cnnXnv hn\miIchpamWv.  IqSmsX A\nb{nXambp IoS\min\n {]tbmKw IoSġv ChbvsXnsc {]Xntcm[ tijn ssIhcnm\pw AhbpsS hwih\hn\pw CSbmpw.  Cv GItZiw 500- ]cw IoS IqS\min\nIsXnsc {]Xntcm[tijn t\SnbnpWvsSmWv IWpI kqNnnpXv.  

Ccw {]iv\sfmgnhmm\mbn IoS\nb{Wn\v ap amKIqSn kzoIcntWvSXv ImeLns Bhiyambn amdnhcnIbmWv.  CXn ap]nbn \nevmhpXmWv kkyP\yamb IoS\min\nIfpsS D]tbmKw.

kkyfpw IoSfpw Xnep _ԯn\v hfsctbsd ]gapWvSv.  Imemcn an sNSnIfpw IoSsXnsc {]hnm Ignhp cmkhkvXp kzbw Dev]mZnnm XpSn. Chsbmw Xs ]noSv inamb IoS\min\nIfmbn amdn.

Chbn \ntmn, ss]d{Xw, tdmnt\mav, ss^tkmnKvssa, Izmkn apXembh DsSpp.  Chsb s]mXphn 'Hmw Xeapd'IoS\min\nI FmWv hntijnnmdpXv.  

]noSv Ce 'cWvSmw Xeapd' IoS\min\nIġv hgnsXfnp. DZm: ss{Ikmaw ]qfn\npw kzm`mhnIambpev]mZnnsSp ss]d{Xw Ir{XnaambpWvSmnb knnIv ss]dt{XmbnUpIġv hgnamdn.  AXpt]mse ss^tkmnKv ssa (ss^tkmnm sh\nt\mk) F sNSnbn \npw thXncnsSpXv) LS\bn kmayap  knnIv Imt_tan\p hgnamdn.

GXmWvSv 50 hjġpapv Un.Un.n.bpsS Bhn`mhtmsS GItZiw 200- ]cw cWvSmw Xeapd IoS\min\nI hn]WnbnsepIbpWvSmbn.  \mUohyqls Xfm Ignhp Ccw IoS\min\nI {]tbmKnptm \innstSWvS IoSsf  IqSmsX a\pjy\p {]tbmP\Icamb ap PohnIsfqSn sImpsapXn\m Ch KpWtmtfsd tZmjamWpWvSmpI.  IqSmsX ChbpsS A\nb{nXamb {]tbmKw IoSġv {]Xntcm[tijn DWvSmnsmSpm\panSbmpw.  

Ign Hcp ]XnmWvSmbn hnIknX cmPyfn 'aqmw Xeapd' IoS\min\nIġmbn \oapWvSmbnsmWvSncnpp.  Chbn IoSfpsS hfsb \nb{np hn[nep IoS\min\nI apXembh DsSpp.  

Cu cmkhkvXp hfsc kpcnXhpw ]cnnXn {]iv\sfmpw Xs DWvSmmhbpamWv. Fnepw hfsc kmh[m\n am{Xta {]hnpIbpq FXpw IoS ]qWambpw NsmSppXn\p appXs hnfIsf \innpXn \npw ]nncnnm km[npIbn FXpw ChbpsS tZmjhifmWv.  

'\memw Xeapd' IoS\min\nI IoSfpsS kzm`mhs amp XcnephbmWv.  Ch IoS kky`mKsf `nmsX AIn\npItb XSkapWvSmpItb sNpp.  

F. kkyP\y IoS\min\nI : 

apIfn ]d Hmtcm Xeapd IoS\min\nIfnepw kky kwbpfn \nv DcpncnsSp IoS\min\nI ImWm Ignbpp.  sNSnIfpsS auenIamb Pohimkv{X]chpw ssPhckX{]chpamb {]h\fn bmsXmcp hn[ ]panm hkvXpfmWv kkyP\y IoS\min\nIfmIm km[yXIfpXv.  CXn sS]nt\mbnUvkv, ^vtfht\mbnUv, ^nt\mfnIvkv, AssaUv, B¡tembnUpI Fnh DsSpp.  

Chtbmtcmpw thXncnsSppXn\pw hniIe\w sNpXn\pap kmtXnIhnZyI hnIknnsSpXv Ccw IoS\min\nIfpsS Dev]mZ\n hfsctbsd aptmpt]mIm klmbIambn.  CXpaqew GItZiw Adp]tXmfw IpSpw_fn Ds hnh[ kkyfn\npw kkyP\y IoS\min\nI Dev]mZnnmw. Chbn NneXmWv shfppn, kqcyImn, XIc, Nndn, IyqWnv ], Xpfkn, Atjy, A_o\nb, tkmbm_o, sNcn, thv (Bcythv, ae thv), Imp IpcpapfIv, ]pIbne, hbv, BStemSIw, Icns\mn, Fcpv, ]qscn apXembh.  

\ntmn  

hfsc hjġp app Xs ]pIbnebneSnbnp hnjLSIw \ntmn\msWv a\nemnbncpp.  hfsc s]sv {]hnm Ignhp  Hcp kv]iI IoS\min\nbmWnXv.  CXn\v hmXImhbnepw {]hnm IgnhpWvSv.  \ntmn Hcp BevtembnUmWv.  {ZmhIcq]nep ip \ntmn\v \ndhpw aWhpan. Fm hmbphpambp km AXv {ItaW Idpp\ndambn amdppXmbn ImWmw.  _mjv]ioeapXn\m \ntmn D]tbmKntijw s]sv A{]XyamIpw.  CXpaqew \ntmn\p ]Icw \ntmn kt^mbmWv IoS\min\nbmbv D]tbmKnphcpXv. {ZmhIcq]n \ntmn kt^v (40% hocyapXv) e`yamWv.  CXv shhpambn Ien t\nv tkmpambn Ien sNSnIfn Xfnmw.  

GItZiw 0.05 apX 0.1 iXam\w \ntmn XfntWvS {ZmhInepWvSmbn cnWw.   ]pIbne IjmbamWv asmv.  CXp Xmdmm\mbn 400 {Kmw ]pIbne sNdpIjWfmbn Acnv 4 en shůn Hcp Znhkw apgph IpXnphbvWw.  AXn\ptijw CXns\ sNdpXmbn NqSmnb tijw ]pIbne \mbn ]ngnv AcnsSpWw. 

100 {Kmw _mtkmv t\ NofpIfmbn AcnsSpv asmcp ]m{Xnep 1 en shůn ebnnpI.  Cu tkmpemb\n t\ct Xmdmnhnp ]pIbne emb\nbnsemgnv \mbn CfWw.  

Cs\ Xmdmnb KmV]pIbne Ijmbn 5-6 Ccn shw tNv  sNSnIfn Xfnmw.  Cet, iev IoS, aoenaqI, CemSnI, G^nUpI, ]pgp, hWvSpI apXemb IoSsf \nb{nm A\ptbmPyamWv \ntmn.  

ss]d{Xw  

PanhKns Hcp sNSnbpsS ]qfn \npw \njvIjWw sNbvsXSppXmWv Cu IoS\min\n.  ]pcmX\ Imew apXevs a[y]qh tZifn IoS\nb{Wn\mbn CXv hym]Iambn D]tbmKnncpp.  Fm 19-mw \qmWvtSmSpIqSnbmWv Cu kkyP\y IoS\min\nv bqtdmv, Atacn, Pm apXemb cmPyfn {]Nmcw InnbXv.  ss]d{Xw AYhm ss]dt{XmbnUvkv F cmk]Zmw 6 LSIfpsS Hcp an{inXamWv.  Chbvv s]mXpsh cmkncX CmXn\m thKw hnLSnpIbpw IoS\min\nv in IpdbpIbpw sNpw.  

CXn\v kv]i\am{Xbn Xs IoSsf Xfphm\p IgnhpWvSv.  ss]d{Xw A\yPohnIsf Hcp Xcnepw _m[nn.  ap, Fdpv, Cu, ]m, sImXpIv, kkyfpsS \ocqnpSnp ap, Get, ievIoS, aoenaqI apXembhbpsS \nb{Wn\v ss]d{Xw ^e{]Zambn D]tbmKnmw.  kw`cnphnp [m\yfntebpw ]dn kkyfntebpw  IoSsXnsc A]ISkm[yX CmsX ss]d{Xw D]tbmKnmw.  

ASpImev ss]d{Xns cmkLS\ a\nemn kam\ hocyap Ir{Xna ss]dt{XmbnUpI hn]WnbnendnbnpWvSv. thKn hnLSnmXpw IqSpX IoS\min\n inbpapXmbXn\m Ch [mcmfambn D]tbmKnphcppWvSv.  DZm: s^ hmetdv, s]sa{Xn, sskha{Xn, sUmsa{Xn apXembh. Fm ChbpsS A\nb{nXamb D]tbmKw IoSġv {]Xntcm[tijn DWvSmIm\nSbmpw.  

tdmnt\m  

sUdnkv F sNSnbpsS thcpIfn 4 apX 11 iXam\w tdmnt\m ASnbnpWvSv.  s]mSnbmbpw {ZmhIambpw CXv D]tbmKnmw.  kvt{]bn 0.002 apX 0.004 iXam\w hsc inamb Awiw ASnbncnWw.  \ocpnpSpp IoSsXnscbpw ]pgpġpw hWvSpIġpsaXnscbpw tdmnt\m D]tbmKnmw.  CXv kv]iI hnjambpw DZchnjambpw {]hnpp. 

thv  

cmkIoS\min\nI IWvSp]nSnpXn\v iXm_vZġp appXs `mcXnse IjI thns IoS\nb{WgnhpI a\nemnbncpp.  Bcythntbpw aethntbpw CeIfnepw ImbvIfnepw IoS\nb{W inbp AkmUndmIvSn, aoenbm\v{Sntbm apXemb ]ZmfSnbnpWvSv.  Ghpw IqSpXembn Cu hkvXpfnepXv ImbvIfnepw  ]cnn\nsSpp FbnepamWv. s]mXpth thstbm ]nmtm, AkmUndmIvSnt\m D]tbmKnm  IoSsf sNSnIfn\nIn \npItbm Ah hfsc Ipdpam{Xw Blmcw IgnpItbm tamiambn hfcpItbm CSp apIfpsS Fw IpdbpItbm sNpXmbn ImWmw. \ocpnpSnp IoSsfbpw Ce Xo\npgpsfbpw Hcp t]mse \nb{nm\p Ignhv thn \np Inp IoS\min\nIġpWvSv.  

thn Ijmbw  

Ccp]Xp {Kmw thn ]cnpsImWvSv Hcp en Ijmbw Xmdmmw.  ]gp thnImbvIfpsS Ipcp thsSpn \mbn NX ]cnv IngnsIn 6 apX 10 aWnq t\cw shůn IpXnphbvWw. ]noSv Ingn ]ehw shůn apn \mbn ]ngnv kv shůn IeWw.  emb\nIfpsS \ndw sXfnbptm Ingn\on Ijmbw sNSnIfn Xfnm\p]tbmKnmw.  ]dn hnfIġv hfsc \XmWo Ijmbw.  

ths  

tkmv tNv ]X thsbpw \smcp IoS\min\nbmWv.  Hcn en shůn  tNm\mbn 20 an. en F thWw.  Bhiyap{X F Hcp ]m{XnseSp tijw tkmv hfsc t\cnbXmbn Acnv tNv ]XnWw.  \ shfpp\ndw InpXn\pw icnbmbn ]XbpXn\pw thWvS{X tkmv tNWw.  tkmn\p ]Icambn Sotmfpw D]tbmKnmw.  Cs\ Xmdmnb ths tkmv an{inXw sNSnIfn Xfnmw.  

thn ]nmv  

thn ]nmv s\hbenenSpXv XWvSpXpc, \nam hncI Fo IoSsf \nb{nm klmbnpw.  hgpX\, Xmfn, shWvS Fnhsb B{Ianp \namhncIsXnsc  ChbpsS ssXI \SpXn\papv XSfn \mbn s]mSn thn ]nmv 50 {Kmw CpsImSppXv \XmWv.  1 In.. {Kmw ]nmv 5 en shůn Hcp cm{Xn IpXnphtijw AcnsSpv emb\nbpw sNSnIfn Xfnmw.

thne Ijmbw  

Bcythns 100 {Kmw Ce 5 en shůn XnfnpIbpw XWpXtijw sNSnIfn XfnpIbpw sNmw.  

thsbpsS kn \npw Xmdmp ]e IoS\min\nIfpw Cv hn]WnbnsenbnpWvSv.  Ahbn NneXmWv -  

1.      amtKmsskUv knbsI 20% C kn

2.     amtKmsskUv Hm.sI. 8% C kn

3.     \nnknUn (sbnUv)

4.     Aqv (tKmZvsdPv)

5.     \ow tKmUv (kv]nv)

6.     \oakm (C.sF.Un. hmcn)  

hbv  

\ Cuap an hfmhp hbv sNSnIfpsS IngpIfn IoS\min\nbmbn {]hnp Atmdn, hyw IcWtijnbp Aktdm Fnh ASnbnpWvSv.  Ingv hnecnpWn `y[m\yfpsS IqsS kqnpXv (1:100 F A\p]mXn) Ch tISpIqSmsX kwcnm klmbnpw.  ]bdp hnpI kqnphbvm DWnsmSn hbn IjW tNpXv \XmWv.  ]ngns kv shůn tNv sNSnIfn IoSsXnsc {]tbmKnmw.  

Ch IqSmsX ImpXpfknbnep ssXtam, Hmkvao Fo LSIġpw IoSsf AIn \nm\p IgnhpWvSv.  

        ssPhnI IoS\nb{Ww  

IoSfpsS {]IrXymbp ip{Xp{]mWnIsf {]tbmP\sSpnbmWv km[npXv.  F.Un. 304 ssN\bn \npw e`n tcJIfn \mcIns IoSsf \nb{npXn\mbn Ddpn IqSpI Nbn hnphncpXmbn ImWm Ignbpw.  Cu DdppI acn IqSpsIpIbpw IoSsf Xnp \innpIbpw sNpp.  7-mw iXInse Nne tcJIfn \np ssN\bn Xsbp Cs Kp]mwKvtUmwKv {]hiybnse \mcIIjIcpw Ccw Ddpn IqSpIsf hfsc ^e{]Zambn D]tbmKnncpXmbn a\nemm km[npw.  

\app Nppw ImWp hnhn[ ]nIfpw tNcbpw Xhfbpsamw Ccw {]IrXnZamb IoSi{XpfmWv.  audojykn shpInfnIsf Xnp \innpXn\mbn 1762- `mcn \npw ssa\Isf sImavSpt]mbncpp.  _bnemIs ssN\bnteXp amXncn \mcIs _m[np IoSsf Xnp\innpXn\mbn DdppIġv btYjvSw kcnm\mbn ac Xn apfsImWvSv _nncpp.  B[p\nI ssPhoI IoS\nb{Wns BZy]Snbmbn 1880-Ifn Iment^mWnbbn teUnt_Uv hWvSpIsf iev IoS Xnp \innm\mbn D]tbmKnncpXns\ IWmmw.  CXns\ XpSv Cu imJbn hfscb[nIw KthjW \ncoW hnhn[ cmPyfn \SpIbpWvSmbn.  1935-HmsS 26-Hmfw hnPbIYI imJbnepWvSmbn.  

Fm sNehp IpdXpw hfsc Ffpnepw IoSsf \nb{np Un.Un.n. bpsS IWvSp]nSntmsS ssPhnI IoS\nb{Wn\p Xmev]cyw IjIcn Ipdbm\nSbmbn.  CXpaqew1958-HmsS hnPtbmZmlcW 4 Ccn am{XamWpWvSmbXv.  Fm Un.Un.n bptSbpw apw Zqjyhisfpdnv IqSpX a\nemnbXv ssPhnI\nb{W amKsfn IqSpX ]Tnm\nS hcpn.  CXpaqew1964- 225 DZmlcW NqWvSnmWnm kmyambn.  Cv GItZiw 400- ]cw DZmlcWfpWvSv.  150-Hmfw IoSsf Ctm Cu coXnbp]tbmKnv ^e{]Zambn \nb{nm IgnbppWvSv.  

ssPhnI\nb{W coXnbpsS {]tbmP\ 

1.      {]IrXnbpsS kaXpenXmh \ne\npp.  

2.     ]cnkc aen\oIcWn\nSbmmXn\m {]IrXnan{Xw.

3.     a\pjy\pw arKġpw hnj_m[ DWvSmmhbmWv.  ap ]miz {]iv\sfmpw XsbpWvSmIn.  

4.     DnjvS IoSs am{Xw \innpp.  

5.     IoS\min\nIsf At]nv sNehp Ipd amKw  

6.     ssPhoI\nb{Wn\p]tbmKnp {]mWnI X\nsb s]ps]cpIpXpw XpSbmbpXpamWv.  

7.     IoS {]Xntcm[tijn ssIhcnm\nSbmmhbmWv  

tZmj  

hfsc kmh[m\w am{Xta {]hnpIbpq. IoSsf Dqe\miw hcppn.  ssPhnI IoS\nb{Ww XpSbmbpXmIWsan Ghpw Ipdv kwJybnemsWn IqSnbpw CcbpsS kmnyw DWvSmbncnWw. Xqew Irjnmv Cu coXn Ahew_npXpaqew XnIpw ]qWambn IoSm{IaW hnapamb hnfhv t\Sm Ignpshv hcnIbn.  

ssPhnI IoS\nb{Ww XpSnbm ]noSv IoS\min\nI {]tbmKnm km[npIbn.  

Cu coXn {]hNnm\mhmXmWv. 

DZm: 1938- t]mtmdnbn a_dnbpsS ievsf \nb{nm\mbn Nne hWvSpIsf ^e{]Zambn D]tbmKnncpp.  Ch ievsf ]qWambpw \innpIbpw ]noSv hwi\miw kw`hnpIbpw sNbvXp.  Fm AXn\ptijw 1953- iev htXmXn s]mnpdsSpIbpw a_dnsSpIsf ]qhm[nIw inbmbn B{IanpIbpw sNbvXp. Ccn Nne tZmjsfms DWvsSnepw ssPhnI IoS\nb{W coXnIIqSn Ahew_nsn am{Xta {]IrXnbpsS Xmfw sXmsXbp Irjn  aptmp sImWvSp t]mIm\mhq. 

IoS\min\nI Xmdmptm acpns Afhv IWvSp]nSnm\p amKw.  

F- IoS\min\n emb\nbn ASnbncnp hocyns iXam\w.  

_n- IoS\min\nbpsS Afhv ({Kmw /an .en)  

kn- thWvSnhcp IoS\min\nbpsS Afhv (an. en)          

Un- IoS\min\n emb\nv DWvSmbncntWvS hnjhocyw CXn \npw F : _n = kn : Un  

DZm: 0.07 iXam\w hocyap Hcp en IoS\min\n Xmdmm thWvS skmtfm 35 CknbpsS Afhv F{X? 

apIfn ]dX\pkcnv  

F = 35  
_n = ?  
kn = 1000 an.en (1 en)  
Un = 0.07  
_n = kn : Un = 1000*80.07/ 35 = an. en  

AXmbXv 0.07 iXam\w hocyap 1 en IoS\min\n Xmdmm 2 an. en tkmtfm thWw.  

IWv : 0.05 iXam\w hocyap 1 en IoS\min\n Xmdmm thWvS FmeIvkv 25 CknbpsS Afsh{X?  

Dcw : 2 an. en  

 thv IIWvS IoS\min\n

Cybn Irjn XpSnb Imew apX thp acns hnhn[ `mK IoS\min\nbmbn D]tbmKnp hcpp.  thn Ipcp kv, Ipcp s]mSnXv, F, ]nmv FnhbmWv IoSsf Xpcm D]tbmKnpXv.

AXn]pcmX\Imew apX thpacns hnhn[ `mK IoS\nb{Wn\pw tcmKia\n\pw D]tbmKsSpn hcppWvSv. Xmsgdbp \mep]fmWv Cybnse IjI ]mccyambn Cu Bhiyn\p]tbmKnp hncpXv:

1. thnIpcp kv

2. ths

3. thnIpcp s]mSnXv

4. thn ]nmv

thn Ipcp kv

thns ]gp ]g tiJcnp Iqn.bnv Imep sImWvSp Nhnn amwkfamb ]pdwsXmen ampI.  Ahtijnp hnp IgpIn hrnbmn shbnepWnsbSpp tiJcnmw.  Ccn hrnbmnb hnn \nmWv IoS\min\n XbmdmtWvSXv.

Bhiyn\p hnsSpv CSnp NXv (anIvknbn s]mSnmepw aXn)  Hcp XpWnbn sIn Ingnbmn shůn apnbnSpI.  Hcp en shůn\v 2550 {Kmw hnp aXnbmIpw.  Hcp cm{Xn apgph IpXn tijw Ingn sRnngnp kp shůn Ieptm AXn\p anb ]m\ndw ssIhcpw.  Cu emb\n CeXo\npgpsf AIm thWvSn Xfnm\p]tbmKnmw.

asmcp coXnbn Ap Intem{Kmw thnhnv DcenennSnv (anIvknbn s]mSnv ) IngnsIn 12 aWnq kabw Hcp _v shůn (10 en) apnhncp tijw \mbn sRnngnp shůn IepI.  thsdmcp ]m{Xn Ac en shsaSpv AXn 10 {Kmw tkmv ebnnp Inp emb\n thnkpambn Ienb tijw ]ncn shw tNp t\nv (100 en ) Xfnm\p]tbmKnmw.

ths

thnIpcp BnsbSpp FbmWv.  Hcp Intem thn Ipcp Bnbm IjvSnv 150200 annen Ftb Inq.  b{n A]w IqSn e`ntpw.  tkmhv FIvkv{Sm coXn sImWvSv FsbSpmepw AXns IoS\miIkz`mhn\p am apWvSmIn Fp IWvSnpWvSv.

]bdphK tISpIqSmsX kqnm ths hnPbIcambn D]tbmKsSpmw.  Hcp Intem ]bdn\v 23 annen thssb tXmXn \mbn Ien D]tbmKnmw.  Hcp sImw hsc ]b IoSieyanmsX Cu coXnbn kqnmw.  Blmcmhiyn\v Cu ]b D]tbmKnpw app NqSpshůn \mbn IgpIn Ibv]v amtWvSn  hcpw.

Hcp en shůn 10 annen F tXmXn ths A]w tkmpambn Ien Caknss^ sNbvXXv FSpm IoSsXntc Xfnm\p IoS\min\nbmbn.  thnIpcp kns\ At]nv Cu coXn sNethdnbXmbncnpw.

thnIpcp s]mSnXv

\mbn DWnb thnIpcp s]mSnsSpXp [m\yfpw ]bdphKfpw IoSieyw IqSmsX kqnm thWvSn D]tbmKsSpmdpWvSv.  kwcnstSWvS D]ns hym]vXns 1% apX 2% hsc Afhn thn Ipcp s]mSn IetWvSn hcpw.  Cu coXnbn Hcp sImw hsc D]w tISpIqSmXncnpsapw IWvSnpWvSv.

thn ]nmv

hnpI hnXbvpXn\p app av DgpXv Cfp Ahkcn slIvSdn\v Htm ctWvSm S F \ncn thn]nmv hnXdn tNpXp ]dnhnfIfnse Imbpw XWvSpw Xpcp \innp IoSsXntcbp \smcp \nb{WamKamsWp IWvSnpWvSv.  aneqsS ]IcpXcw IpanfpIfpsSbpw _mIvSocnbIfpsSbpw \nb{Wn\pw thn]nmv an tNpXv D]tbmK{]ZamWv.  500 {Kmw thn]nmv 10 en shůn IpXnv 12 aWnq hncpp Inp ISpwNmbbpsS \ndap emb\n Xfnp sImSpm CeXo\npgpsf \nb{nm Ignbpw.  ss\{SP {][m\amb \smcp ssPhhfw IqSnbmWv thn]nmv.

ssPhIoS\min\nI

cmkIoS\min\nI A]ISImcnIfmWv.  {]tXyInp ]dn, ]gw Irjnbn.  cmkIoS\min\nIġp ]Icw \n¡m \app ]e ssPhIoS\min\nIfpw D]tbmKnm Ignbpw.  Ahsbn.

ths Faj

Adp]Xp {Kmw _m tkmv Ac en shůn ebnnv tkmpemb\n Xbm sNpI.  Cu emb\n Hcp en thsbn Hgnp \Xpt]mse CfpI.  ths Faj Xbmdmbn.  Cs\ Xbmdmnb ths Faj 15 en shůn tNv D]tbmKnmw.

hnbdns {][m\ i{Xpfmb Nn{XIoSw.  ap (G^nUv), samtkv tcmKw ChbpsS \nb{Wn\v CXp ^e{]ZamWv.  kvt{]b sImWvSv ]bsNSnbpsS `mKfn sNdpIWnIIfmbn ]Xnp coXnbnemWp XfntWvSXv.  ths Faj hnbdns IoS\nb{Wn\p am{XamWv Fp {]tXyIw HmanpI.

shfppn an{inXw

shcn hK ]dnIfpsS {][m\ i{Xpfmb sho, ]pų, ap (G^nUv) ChbpsS \nb{Wn\p ths Faj shfppn an{inXw ^e{]ZamWv.  ap]p \ntZin coXnbn Xbm sNbvX Hc en ths Faj Adp]Xp en shůn tNp t\npI.  Cu emb\nbn HtIm Intem {Kmw shfppn \Xp t]mse AcptNpI.  an{inXw AcnsSpv CeIfpsS ASnhip ]Xnp coXnbn Hcp kvt{]b sImWvSv XfnpI.

Incnbmv, tkmv, an{inXw

apfIns IpcpSnn\p {][m\ ImcWmcmb Cet, sho, ap (G^nUv), aWvScn FnhbpsS \nb{Wn\p Incnbmv, tkmv, shfppn an{inXw \XmWv.  60 {Kmw _mtkmv Ac en shůn ebnnsSp emb\n, Incnbmv sNSnbpsS CfwXWvSpw CeIfpw NXsSp Hcp en Nmdn HgnnfpI.  CXn 330 {Kmw shfppn Acp tNpI.  an{inXw 15 en shůn t\nv AcnsSpv CeIfpsS ASnhip hogpw hn[w kvt{]b D]tbmKnp XfnpI.

\mqsSn, tkmv an{inXw

Adp]Xp {Kmw _mtkmv Ac en shůn ebnnsSp emb\n, \mqsSnbpsS CeIfpw CfwXWvSpw NXsSp Hcp en Nmdn HgnnfpI.  Cu an{inXw ]Xn\p en t\n Inshůn tNv AcnsSpp sNSnbpsS `mKfn Xfnm ap (G^nUv) IfpsS \nb{Ww ^e{]ZamIpw.  tdmksSnbn \ocqnpSnp {]mWnIfpsS \nb{Wn\pw Cu an{inXw D]tbmKnmw.

thnIpcp kv

hgpXn\, shWvS Fo sNSnIfn {]iv\IoSamb XWvSpw Imbpw Xpcp ]pgpfpsS B{IaWw XSbpXn\p klmbnp Hcp ssPhIoS\min\nbmWnXv.  ]pgptSn\p hnt[bamb sNSnbpsS CfwXWvSpw ImbvIfpw apdnpamn \inn tijw thnIpcp kv Xfnp coXnbmWv.  5% hocyap emb\n CXn\mbn D]tbmKnmw.  emb\n DWvSmm 50 {Kmw thnIpcp s]mSnv Hcp XpWnbn IngnsIn 1 en shůn 12 aWnq apnhbvpI.  CXn\p tijw Ingn ]pdsSpv CtX shůn ]eXhW apnngnbpI.  shw Xhnp\ndambn amdpXphsc CXv BhnpI.

tKmaq{Xw, Immcn an{inXw

icocns D]cnXen shfp Hcp tPmSn hcIfp ]pgp ]mhenepw ]\ndnep Iq\]pgp ]Shenepw Ce Xnpw Imbv Xpcpw tISphcppp.  CeI Xnp henb Zzmc DWvSmp Ipgp hmgbpsS {][m\ i{XpIoSamWv.  ChbpsS \nb{Wn\p tKmaq{Xw Immcn an{inXw \XmWv.

Hcp en tKmaq{Xn ]p {Kmw ImmcnapfIv AcptNpI. an{inXw 10 en shůn t\nv AcnsSpp XfnpI.  hmgbpsS Ipgphns \nb{Wn\v CXv D]tbmKnptm Cebnepw CetmfIġpnepw ]IpXn hnSp \n¡p \mnebvpnepw ]Xnp coXnbn XfnWw.

thn Ipcp s]mSn

hmgbpsS {][m\ i{XpIoSamb XSXpc ]pgphns \nb{Wn\p thnIpcp s]mSn D]tbmKnmw.  hmg \v aqpamkw Ignbptm thn Ipcp s]mSnv CehnfpIfn \ndbvp coXnbmWp kzoIcntWvSXv.  Hcp hmgbvv A]Xp {Kmw thn IpcpsmSn th n hcpw.  thn Ipcp s]mSnp ]Icw thn]nmpw s]mSnv D]tbmKnmw.

a s]bnv sIWn

shcn hK ]dnI, shWvS, hgpX\, apfIv, aco\n, Fnhbn samtkv tcmKw ]cpXn {][m\ ]p hlnp Hcp i{XpIoSamWv sho.  shoIsf IpSpm klmbnp Hcp sIWnbmWnXv.  CScw henap SnpIfpsS (DZmlcWw Aap, UmUm FnhbpsS Hgn SnpI) ]pdw`mKfn a s]bnv ASnpI.  s]bnv DWnbtijw tXmfn AhnShnsS \mnbnp 21/2 ASn \ofap IpIfn Sn IagvnhbvpI.  ]noSv Snn asbnSn ]pdw`mKv BhWs ]pcpI.  a\ndw CjvSsSp shoI sIWnbntev BIjnsSpIbpw Snn ]pcnbncnp BhWsbn HnnSnv Npt]mIpIbpw sNpw.  Cu sIWnI ap (G^nUv) Isf IpSpm\pw \XmWv.

DdppsIWn

shWvS, hgpX\, ]b, apfIv ChbpsS thcv, XWvSv, ]qhv, Imbv Fnh Xpfp \miw sNp ISnDdppIsf sIWnbn IpSpn \innmw.

shůn \\sSp ]p {Kmw icjWw Hcp Nncbvpn tXp]nSnnpI.  Hcp \pv ^pdUmXcn Nncbvpn tXp]nSnn icbpsS apIfn hnXdpI.  Cu sIWn DdpnIqSn\cnIn hbvpI.  DdppI sIWnbnse hnjen]vXamnb ic Xnp NsmSppw.

ImbosWnI

shcnhK ]dnbpsS hntijnv ]mh, ]Shew FnhbpsS {][m\i{Xphmb ImboIsf sIWnbn IpSpmhpXmWv.  CXntep ]gsWn, XpfknsWn  Ch Xbmdmn ]Shew, ]mh ]en CShnp XqnbnSmw.

]gsWn

]mfbtImS ]gw sXmentbmSpIqSn aqv, \mev IjWfmbn apdnpI.  Hcp ISemkn Htc \ncn \ncnbnncnp ^pdUm Xcnbn ]gjWns Hcp apdn`mKw HnsbSppI.  ^pdUmXcn ]nSnn ]gapdnbpsS hiw apIfnemn Hcp Nncbvpn hbvpI.  Cu Nnc ]en XqnbnSmw.

XpfknsWn

Hcp ssInSnbn HXpp Xpfkn CeI AcpInp Xpfknmdpw NWvSnbpw Hcp NncbnseSppI.  CXn Ipdp shw HgnpI.  C\n ]p{Kmw ic s]mSnv Xpfkn\ocpambn tbmPnnpI.  Ac {Kmw ^pdUm Xcnbpw IqsS tNv Xpfkn \ocv hnjen]vXampI. XpfknsWn ]en XqnbnSpI.

InshsWn

Hcp Nncbn Im `mKw Inshffw \ndbvpI.  ]p {Kmw ic s]mSnp Inshffn  tNv  CfpI.  Ac {Kmw ^qdUm XcnIqsS tNp an{inXw hnjen]vXampI.  sIWn ]en XqnbnSmw.

ao sIWn

\Xpt]mse s]mSn ao 5 {Kmw Hcp NncpffnenSpI.  aos]mSn shffw Xfnv sNdpXmbn \\bvpI.  Ac {Kmw ^pdUm Xcn Nncbnse ao s]mSnbpambn tNv CfpI.  C\n Nnc Hcp t]mfno Ihdn\pffn CdnshbvpI.  t]mfno IqSns apI `mKw IqnspI.  t]mfnoIqSns  Ccqhifnepambn Imbobvp ISp IqSm X henapff Bdp Zzmc CSpI.  sIWnI ]en XqnbnSmw. Ccw sIWnIfntep ImboI BIjnsSpIbpw hnjen]vXamnb Blmcw \n Ignv Ah \innpIbpw sNpw.

kwtbmPnX kkykwcWw

IoSm{IaWw aqew IrjnpWvSmtbmhp \jvSw XnsSppI A{X Ffpa. Nne Ahkcfn Nne Xcw IoS KWyamb \jvSw hcpptm ap Nne kabfn Ch DWvSmntbmhp \jvSw {ibnsSm \ncn Btbmw. hnfIsf IoS_m[bn \npw kwcnpXn\p GI D]m[nbmbn Irjnm ImWpXv IoS\min\n {]tbmKw am{XamWv. kkykwcWw Fv tIġp am{Xbn Xs, e`yamIp GXphnjhpw AhbpsS Xctam {]h\ coXntbm a\nemmsX Db tXmXn ]ehw {]tbmKnv i{Xp{]mWnIsf hIhcppI FpXv Hcp sXmb kao]\amWv. XpSscpSscbpXpw hnthN\clnXhpamb IoS\min\n{]tbmKns ^eambn ]e IoSfpw IoS\min\nIsXnsc {]Xntcm[inbmnp Ignp. ISp hnj hn tXmXn {]tbmKnm t]mepw IoSieyw Hgnhmm \nhrnbnm Hcp Ln \mw FnbncnpIbmWv. Cu hkvXpXIfpsS shfnn, apImefn \npw hn`nambn hnj{]tbmKn anXXzw ]menWsap Hcp NnmKXn BtKmf hym]Iambn inbmnphcnIbmWv. CXn\nmWv kwtbmPnX IoS\nb{Ww F XXzw {]m_eyn hXv. 

kwtbmPnX IoS\nb{Ww Fmsev?

      IoS\min\n {]tbmKw DssS {]mtbmKnIamb Fm IoS\nb{W amsfbpw bpn]qw kwtbmPnnv IoSsf Aa sNpI FXmWv kwtbmPnX IoS\nb{Wns apJy Bibw. hnfIsf {]XnIqeambn _m[nm hn[w IoS\min\n {]tbmKw IpdbvpIbpw ap \nhmcWam IqSn A\phnpIbpw sNpIbmWv CXns Dtiw. Irjnv \miw hcpm hn[n IoSfpsS kwJy HXpn \npXn\v kmyamb \nb{W am Ahew_npIbpw, kqva\ncoWw \Sn IoS IqSpX \miImcnbmbn amdpp Fp a\nemptm am{Xw IoS\min\n {]tbmKnpIbpw sNpI FXv Cu Bibns ASnm\ {]amWamWv. {][m\s kwtbmPnX IoS\nb{W am hniZoIcnmw. 

{]Xntcm[ inbp hnpIfpsS D]tbmKw

      AXypev]mZ\ tijnbpXpw IoS{]Xntcm[ inbpXpamb hnn\ XncsSpv Irjn sNpI FXv {]tXyI sNehv hcppXtm. Fm hnfIsf B{Ianp Fm IoStfbpw sNdpp\n¡phm Ignhp hnn\ Cv e`ya FXv Hcp ]cnanXnbmWv. Fncpmepw Nne IoSġv {]Xntcm[inbp C\ Cv e`yamWv. DZm:- ]mhense {]oXn, ]Shense IuapZn, a\nse A kqcyapJn Fnh Imbobvv Gsdpsd {]Xntcm[ inbphbmWv. IqSmsX {]Xntcm[ inbp \mS C\fpw \SpXn\p]tbmKnmw.

ImjnI \nb{Ww 

      \nehnep IrjnWnI Hsæn asmcp Xcn IoSm{IaWns tXmXv \nbnpXn {][m\ ]phlnppWvSv. Irjn coXnbn ASppw Nnbpw AXymhiyamWv.  Irjn ew sXcsSppXp apX {i sNepntb aXnbmIq.  \t]mse kqcy{]Imiw InpXpw \ohmm kuIcyapXpamb ew thWw sXcsSptWvSXv.  Imew sXnbp IrjncoXn ]e IoStfbpw Wnp hcppw. hnfhndp Imew {IaoIcnpw, hnf]cnh\w \Smnbpw, kaoIrXhf {]tbmKw \Snbpw, PetkN\w {IaoIcnpw IoSm{IaWn \npw Irjnsb Hcp ]cn[nhsc csSpmhpXmWv.  Irjnbndptm, apv IrjnsNbvXncp hnfI B ep Xs Bhnv IrjnsNmXncnphm {inWw.  ]e hnfI Iqn Ien IrjnbndpXpw \XmWv.  ew Hcpptm Bgn Infp adnbvpXv D`mKfntev kqcy{]Imiw \Xpt]mse InpXn\pw, anepff hnhn[ ZiIfnep IoSsf \innpXn\pw klmbnpw.  IqSmsX aphnfIfpsS AhinjvS \n_\v[ambpw tiJcnpXntem, IpgnpaqSpXntem NppIcnpXntem {intWvSXpapWvSv.  Irjn Bcw`npXn\p aptmSnbmbn ap]cntim[\ \Sm km[npsan AXv ]eXcnepw KpWw sNpw.  AX IqSpXep IrjnbnSfn IoStcmKm{IaWw IqSpXepXmbnmWv IWvSphcpXv.  AXpsImWvSp Xs As\bp efn \nesamcpptXmsS Ipmb {]tbmKw IqSn \SWw.

           hf{]tbmKnse sXmb {]hWX IoSh\hn\v hfsctbsd klmbnpw.  ssPhhfIrjnbn {]Xntcm[ in IqSpX DsWvSp am{Xa, cpNnbpw kwkvcWtijnbpw IqSpXembncnpw.  cmkhf {]tbmKnptm Bhiym\pkcWw am{Xw hf{]tbmKw \SWw. IqSmsX Irjnehpw ]cnkchpw If hnapampXnepw {inWw. Fsm, IfI ]eXpw IoSfpsS BXntYb kkyfmWv.  

ssPhoI \nb{Ww

              an IoSġpw {]IrXnbn Nne {]mIrXnI i{XqfpWvSv. km[mcWKXnbn Ch i{XpIoSfpsS h\hns\ \nb{nv kpenXmh \ne\npp.  CXns\bmWv ssPhoI IoS\nb{Ww Fp ]dbpXv.  cWvSpXcnep ssPhoI \nb{Ww km[yamIpp.  Hv, Cc]nSnbmcneqsSbpw asmv, ]cmZfneqsSbpw.  ap IoSsf s]sv `Wambn IsWvSphsc Cc]nSnbm FmWv hntijnnpXv. FpImenI, XpnI XpSnbh Cqn sSpp.  Fm, ]cmZIoS, AhbpsS PohnXN{Iw i{XpIoSfn ]qnbmpp FXmWv {]tXyIX.  AXmbXv - i{XpIoSfpsS \miw XmcXtay\ ]Xpsbmbncnpw.

           IoS tcmKġSnasSpp FXpw ssPhoI \nb{Wambn IWmmw.  sshdkv, _mIvSocnb, Ipan Fo kqvamWpfmWv km[mcWbmbn tcmK ]cpXv.  IoSkwJy htXmXnemIptXmsS tcmKfpw IqSpXembn ]cpp.  

cmk\nb{Ww 

             icnbmb Xcnem IoS\min\n {]tbmKw ]cnkc aen\oIcWn\p hgnsXfnpp.  Aco hmbphnepw shůnepw acpv Iev ]cnkcaen\oIcWw DWvSmIpp.  IoS\min\n {]tbmKw sImWvSv Dtin hnf kwcWw Inpn.  ]pdta ]ehn[nep Zpjy^efpw Dfhmpp.  AanXamb IoS\min\n {]tbmKw sImWvSv, IoS\min\nIsf sNdpp hfcm {]m]vXnbp IoS DWvSmIpp. IoSfpsS kzm`mhnI i{Xpfmbn hfcp At\Iw sNdp{]mWnI \innspt]mIpXpw, IoS\min\n {]tbmKns A]cym]vXX aqeamWv.  Ccw hn]pI IWnseSpptm IoS\min\nIfpsS D]tbmKw ]camh[n IpdpsImWvSp IoS\nb{W ]cn]mSnI \SnemtWvSXns BhiyIX a\nemIpw.    

           i{XpIoSns PohnX Zibpw, B{IaW \nehmchpw XnsSpnb tijw an{XIoSġv tZmjwhcm Xcnep IoS\min\n {]tbmKamWv Ahew_ntWvSXv.  kmnIamb hnf\miw DWvSmIppshn am{Xta hnj{]tbmKsn Nnnmhq.  kmnI \miw DWvSmIp Ahsbn Nnnptm IoSfpsS tXmXpam{Xw IWnseSpm t]mcm an{XIoSfpsS IWpw  FSpWw.  DZm:- apbpsS B{IaWw IqSpXembn ImWptm AhbpsS i{XpIoSfmb hWvSpIfpw apw DtWvSm FpIqSn {inWw.  hWvSpIfpw apw IqSpX ImWppshn IoS\mi\n {]tbmKw DSs\ thWvS F \nKa\n FWw.  an{XIoS IqSpX Dtm cmk\nb{Ww hfscb[nIw tZmjw sNpw.  IoS\min\nI D]tbmKntWvS kmlNcyfn ]dnIfn Zpjy^e Cm ]pIbne Ijmbw, thn Ipcpkv, as Ipgv Fnh D]tbmKnmw.  

ap \nb{W am  

           ]eXcnep sIWnI D]tbmKnv IoSs BIjnv \innmw.  hnfp sIWnI, \ndap D]cnXe, BIjW inbp cmkhkvXp Fnhbpw CXnsSpp.  Ctm hfsc {]Nmcap cmkhkvXpfmWv ^ntdmtamWpI.  CXpsImWvSv IoSsf sIWnbn AIsSppItbm CWtNc XSbpItbm Bhmw.

           ]dn hnfIfn IoS\nb{Ww ssIhcnpXn\mbn Iqmb {]h\w AXymhiyamWv.  CXn\mbn ImjnI \nb{W amġv IqSpX {]m[m\yw \IpI, an{X IoSfpsS tXmXv a\nemnb tijw am{Xw cmk\nb{Wn\v GsSpI, cmk\nb{Ww AXymhiysav tXmp]w a\pjy\v tZmjw sNmXpw AhinjvS kz`mhw IpdXpamb IoS\min\nI D]tbmKnpI, IoS\min\n {]tbmKn\p apv \Xpt]mse hnfXpw GItZiw hnfhmbXpamb ImbvI ]dnsSppI. \nnX tXmXn am{Xw IoS\min\n Xmdmn XfnpI Fns\bp kwKXnIfn Gsd {i sNepWw.

IoSfpw \nb{W amfpw 

              Fm ImjnI hnfIġpsa t]mse ]dn hnfIġpw IoS ieyw DWvSmImdpWvSv.  Fm Chbn IoS\min\n {]tbmKw \Sptm AXoh{i BhiyamWv  IqSpX hnjhocyaptXm ZoL\m hnjhocyw \n¡ptXm Bb IoS\min\nI ]dn hnfIġv tbmPnX.  hfsc AXymhiyamsWn am{Xw, ]mIsanb ImbvI apgph s]mnsSptijw, hocyw Ipd IoS\min\nI D]tbmKnmw. Ccw IoS\min\nI {]tbmKnv NpcpnbXv cWvSmgvNsbnepw Ignt ASp hnfshSpmhp.

           hnv \Sptm Imt_m^pdm AYhm t^mtdv XcnI CSpXphgn thcp_\v[I \namhncIfpsS hf XSbm Ignbpw.  am{Xa \ocqnpSnp IoStfbpw sNSnbpsS BZyLfn CXphgn sNdpm km[npw.  Imt_m k^m F IoS\min\n hnn ]pcm A\ptbmPyamWv (Prosses 25 DS).  sNSnIfn IpdpImew am{Xw Xn\n¡p HmKmt\m t^mkvt^pI amdn amdn D]tbmKnpXp hgn aWvUcnItfbpw \ocqnpSnp IoStfbpw \nb{nmw.  Cs\ Xfnptm cWvSmgvN apX aqmgvNhsc CSthfbnpthWw Xfnm. aqXpw Hcphn[w ]mIambXpamb ImbvI ]dnpamnbXn\p tijw thWw acppXfn \Sphm.  

 

 

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Quality People, Infrastructure & Work Culture for Quality Technology, Products & Services. Merit alone counts for quality suitable for the purpose. One has know-how only when it is proven in real life.Copyright 2010 Pineapple Research Station, Kerala Agricultural University. Best viewed in IE 5.5 or above, 1024x768 screen, scripts enabled. Last modified: 23 Jun 2014. Webmaster: Dr. P. P. Joy, Associate Professor & Head, Pineapple Research Station (Kerala  Agricultural  University), Vazhakulam, Muvattupuzha, Ernakulam District, Kerala, India, PIN-686 670, Tel. & Fax: +91 485 2260832, Cell: +919446010905, E-mail: prsvkm@kau.in. Constructive comments, suggestions and criticisms are most welcome and please mail to prsvkm@gmail.com.