PINEAPPLE RESEARCH STATION (KERALA  AGRICULTURAL  UNIVERSITY), VAZHAKULAM, MUVATTUPUZHA

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Tissue culture is a process that involves exposing plant tissue to a specific regimen of nutrients, hormones, and light under sterile, in vitro conditions to produce many new plants, each a clone of the original mother plant, over a very short period of time. AgriForest's tissue culture plants are characterised by disease free growth, a more fibrous, healthier root system, a bushier branching habit, and a higher survival rate.

There are three main steps to the tissue culture process:
  
STAGE I is the initiation phase. It concerns the establishment of plant tissue in vitro by sterilising the material and initiating it into culture.



STAGE II is the multiplication phase. At this stage, the in vitro plant material is re-divided and placed in a medium with plant growth regulators that induce the proliferation of multiple shoots. This process is repeated many times until the number of plants desired is reached.



STAGE III
 is the root formation phase. It involves the introduction of hormones to induce rooting and the formation of complete plantlets.
 


Following these three stages, the plants are then moved from the laboratory to the greenhouses for acclimatisation and further development.


When Can Tissue Culture Help With Your Growing Needs?

 

Plant tissue culture technology has proven itself to be an effective and viable option for growers to seriously consider in a variety of different situations. 

*          When large-scale propagation of new or superior plant varieties is required for early introduction to market

Following a decision to release a new variety into the market, the key to success for growers is rapid scale up and production on a commercial level. Tissue culture is often the fastest and most economical means to achieve this goal. 

We suggest that growers continually compare the cost of conventional propagation methods to micropropagation, especially when conducted by an established tissue culture company with a proven track record of mass propagation such as AgriForest. 

*          When mass multiplication is needed for varieties which are difficult to regenerate by conventional methods of propagation 

It is often the case that new or highly valued plant varieties are also the most difficult to propagate using traditional means. Here again, tissue culture technology can be very helpful to growers. 

The speed of plant multiplication and the quality and uniformity achieved by AgriForest's micropropagation process can be considerably superior to conventional methods. 

Description: *      When disease-free plant propagation is important

One of the inherent requirements of the tissue culture process is that it be conducted in sterile, aseptic conditions. This results in plants that are generally free of bacterial and fungal diseases. This aspect of tissue culture is especially helpful for growers that are propagating plant varieties that have major systemic disease problems. 

TISSUE CULTURE PROTOCOLS FOR PINEAPPLE

INTRODUCTION

Tissue culture is a collection of experimental methods whereby fragments of living tissue are isolated from plants and grown respectively on a nutrient rich medium for a definite period. The beginning of plant tissue culture was made as early as 1898 German Botanist G. Haberland (father of tissue culture). Totipotency is the basis of plant cell and tissue culture. Each cell of a multicellular organisms is capable of independent development when provided with suitable conditions by regeneration. By the development of suitable medium (1940-1970) for plant cells, tissue, protoplasts, anthers, root tips, and embryos In vitro morphogenesis of plants was successfully done.

METHODS OF PLANT TISSUE CULTURE

Basic Steps:

1. Preparation suitable nutrient medium: Suitable media is prepared for pineapple tissue culture and transferred into suitable containers and autoclaved at 15 psi for 30 minutes. 

Growth Regulators

Four broad classes of growth regulators namely auxins, cytokines, gibberellins and abscisic acid. Differentiation and organogenesis of tissue become feasible only on the addition of growth regulators. Auxins induces cell division, elongation of stem,internodes,tropism,apical dominance and rooting.Auxins used are IAA,NAA,IBA,24-D.Cytokines are mainly concerned with cell division, modification of apical dominance and shoot differentiation. Most frequently used are BAP,BA,2-iP.Gibberellins and abscisic acid enhances callus growth according to the species.

Vitamins and Amino acids

Cultured cells are normally capable of producing vitamins and amino acids for performing various metabolic activities .If the cells are unable to produce, addition of vitamins and amino acids to the medium is recommended.

Antibiotics

Addition of antibiotic in the media retards the cell growth. But some cells have systemic infection of microorganisms. To prevent the of microbes we use antibiotics.(gentamycin)

Preparation of stock solution (MS)

A series of standard stock solutions are prepared for the preparation of MS and other media. Specific media are prepared for callus initiation, multiplication, elongation and rooting.

2. Surface sterilization of the explant and inoculation into the medium

Explant (slips, suckers, crown and leaf) obtained directly from the field grown pineapple should be surface sterilized in the laminar air flow chamber using the chemical agent in order to remove the microbial contamination on their surface. These microbes utilize the nutrients faster than the plant due to their brief life cycle and finally kill the plant tissue.

Healthy explants were selected and washed in running tap water for 15 minutes, subsequent step were done in LAF aseptically

Explants were kept in 1% saaf for 20 minutes

The chamber is swabbed with ethanol before starting work

Sterile Petri dishes, 70% ethanol, mercuric chloride were kept on the table of laminar cabinet

Explants were transferred to sterile beaker and treated with 0.1% mercuric chloride for 10 minutes. The explant were surface sterilized by frequently swirling the beaker.

Sterilized explants were then thoroughly washed several times with sterile distilled water.

The explants were then transferred aseptically to basal media with hormones for callus initiation and observed periodically.

3. Fumigation

To control contamination, fumigate the culture room, laminar air flow chamber and mist chamber using formaldehyde. For fumigating the LAF potassium permanganate is used with formaldehyde.

4. Contamination

There are chances for contamination even if each step of plant tissue culture is done aseptically. The contamination may be caused by bacteria and fungi. The bacterial contamination is treated with 0.05% mercuric chloride. Antibiotics (Gentamycin) are also used, they are added in the medium after sterilization. The fungal contamination is treated with 0.5% saaf. 

5. Hardening

The tissue culture plants that have shoot and root are treated with trichoderma (10g/l) and 0.5-0.6ml any rooting hormone (NAA,IAA & IBA) for 30 minutes. These plants were planted in soil which is mixed with pseudomonas, trichoderma and rock phosphate (each 10g/l). The plants were kept in the mist chamber for one week. These plants were watered regularly. After one week these plants are kept outside the chamber and saaf is sprayed on them. The plants are watered regularly as before. Two weeks later bavastin is sprayed. After 2-3 weeks hilban is used for spraying. Once in every week ash (10g/l) and urea (20g/l) is sprayed. 

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Quality People, Infrastructure & Work Culture for Quality Technology, Products & Services. Merit alone counts for quality suitable for the purpose. One has know-how only when it is proven in real life.Copyright 2010 Pineapple Research Station, Kerala Agricultural University. Best viewed in IE 5.5 or above, 1024x768 screen, scripts enabled. Last modified: 23 Jun 2014. Webmaster: Dr. P. P. Joy, Associate Professor & Head, Pineapple Research Station (Kerala  Agricultural  University), Vazhakulam, Muvattupuzha, Ernakulam District, Kerala, India, PIN-686 670, Tel. & Fax: +91 485 2260832, Cell: +919446010905, E-mail: prsvkm@kau.in. Constructive comments, suggestions and criticisms are most welcome and please mail to prsvkm@gmail.com.