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Organic pineapple


Adding prepsKneading CPPSprinkling 507


Preparation of land

An area with 30-40% slope is generally selected for pineapple cultivation.  Cow dung is then incorporated into the soil by hoeing.  The land is levelled after ploughing to facilitate uniform distribution of water & nutrients.  Alternate criss cross rows are made using bamboo across the slope, which helps in soil and water conservation.  However, in most hill areas of north east India, the fields are not ploughed but uniform rows are demarcated either across the slopes or along the slopes where the suckers are planted at uniform spacing.



Pineapple is propagated vegetatively through suckers, slips, crown and disc.  Plants grown from suckers produce fruit in 15-18 months, whereas those from slips, crown and discs take 20-22 months after planting.  Suckers and slips are cured by stripping off the lower leaves followed by drying in the sun or in partial shade for about a week before planting.  This curing is done to avoid  rotting of plants after they are planted.  Suckers can be treated by dipping them in a mixture of a Cow pat pit/ Amrit Pani/ Jeevamrut/ Panchgavya etc as per convenience.  Then they are dried for 6-10 hours.  When such treated suckers are used for planting, it may result in healthy plants and high yields.



Planting is done either in flat beds where there is no danger of waterlogging, or in shallow trenches that are filled as the suckers grow and develop.  Care should be taken to see that the bud or heart of the sucker does not get buried.  Single or double row system of planting is followed.  Planting is done in about 8-10 cm deep holes with perfect alignment.



In single row system of planting, plants are spaced 30-60 cm apart with a spacing of 75 cm between rows.  In double row system, the spacing is 30 cm between plants, 60 cm between rows and 1-1.5 m between double rows from centre.


Planting time

The best time for planting of pineapple suckers is during the rainy season between June to August. Suckers are planted directly in the main field after giving treatment.  Many farmers in the region generally plant without any treatment.


Crop specific agronomic practices

An optimum planting density is important for obtaining fruits of good size and quality.  For cultivation of pineapple in flat beds, a planting density of 43,000 plants per hectare is considered optimum, keeping a distance of 30 cm between plants, 60 cm between rows and 90 cm between beds.  The interspaces are intercropped with seasonal pulses or vegetables of short duration.

In double row system, planting is done with a spacing of 25 cm x 50 cm x 80 cm for a total plant population of 61,538 plants per hectare.  Close spacing pattern is suitable for hill areas on terraces to prevent soil erosion.

The plantation is allowed to remain on the same site for 4-5 years after which the plants are removed and new plants are planted.

Incorporation of farm yard manure/composts as per their availability, and application of microbial enhancer are effective in improving physico, chemical and microbial properties of the soil.


Specific crop requirement and source

Sufficient quantities of biodegradable material of microbial, plant or animal residue should be returned to the soil to increase or at least to maintain its fertility and the biological activity within it.  The following doses of nutrients are required for pineapple:




Per plant per year (g)


Per hectare per year (kg)



A dose of 25 t/ha of compost / cattle manure can be applied as basal dressing for pineapple.  The green leaf and compost or cattle manure may be broadcasted around the plant after weeding and mixed with soil by light hoeing or forking.


Water management


During summer months, pineapple should be irrigated wherever possible.  It requires five or six irrigations during dry months at an interval of 20- 25 days.


Conservation techniques

Growing of green manure crops at the onset of monsoon in between two rows help to suppress weed growth, prevent soil erosion and add organic matter to the soil.  Cover crops like sweet potato can also be grown to conserve moisture in the soil.  Mulching with straw and other plant materials is an important method practiced by the farmers.

Crop protection

Organic farming system should be carried out in a way that ensures that those losses from pests, diseases and weeds are minimized.

Weed management

Weeding is generally done twice a year, the first a month or two after planting in the month of August or September and the second in the month of October – November.  It is carried out periodically to keep the area clean.  The uprooted weeds are either used for making organic compost or as mulch to conserve water/moisture during winter/dry months.  Growing green manure crops/ cover crops/ green legume crops and mulching with weed slashing and shade tree leaf litter etc also suppress weed growth.

Mealy bug

Mealy bug is the most widely distributed and probably also one of the most damaging pests.  The rapid spread of this malady in field is due to feeding habit of bugs.  Often before visual symptoms appear, mealy bugs leave infected plants and move to nearby healthy ones.  Symptoms first appear on roots, and they are seldom observed because of being underground.  The roots cease to grow, eventually leading to collapse of tissues.  The predominant symptom is wilting of leaves, commencing from leaf tips.  Reddish yellow colour develops in the wilting areas.


Other pests that appear sporadically in eastern India are stem borer (Metmasius ritchiei) and scale insect (Diaspis bromeliae).  Other minor pests are fruit and stem borer (Tecla echion), termites, pineapple bug (Carpophilus hemipterus) and pineapple mite or red mite (Stigmacus floridanas) and pineapple scale (Diaspis bromeliae)


Common animals that attract pineapple are the rodents, monkeys, squirrels, wild boar, porcupines, and birds.

Rats affect mature or ripe pineapple fruits.  Spreading pieces of colocassia in the field or in storage gives a reasonable control.

In hilly terrain monkeys, eat and destroy pineapple.  Squirrels affect the pineapple field.  Wild boar and porcupines feed on the roots of pineapple.  A number of birds, especially crows and peacock feed on ripe pineapples.  Mechanical trappings are the traditional and effective ways of controlling these menaces.


Reductions in crop yield, particularly in ratoon crops are caused by root knot nematodes of Meloidogyne genus.  The other genera that cause root lesions or penetrate into roots of pineapple are Pratylenchus and Rotylrnchus.  Initially when nematode population is low, plants do not exhibit any symptoms.  But later with increase in population, plant growth is restricted and finally chlorosis appears on leaves.  Plant material infested with nematodes should be destroyed and only healthy plant material should be used for new planting.


Butt rot/ Leaf Rot / Base Rot/ Fruit Rot

The fungus Ceratostomella paradoxa cause rotting in planting material, fruits, plant stem and leave under high moisture and high humidity.  Base or butt rot of planting material occurs when they are not dried properly and are packed with little aeration.  Fungus also destroys older plants by entering through wounds caused in the collar region during weeding or other intercultural operations.  Leaf rot, base rot and fruit rot are caused by Ceratostomella paradoxa throughout the pineapple growing areas.  Treatment of suckers in biodynamic liquid pesticides prepared from fermentation of cow dung, urine and leaves a from local materials should be evaluated.

Black Rot or Soft Rot

This occurs in ripe fruits mostly after harvest, if there is delay of some days between harvest and utilization.  The casual organism is same as butt rot.  Occurrence of black rot is common.  The fungus makes its entry through wounds caused during picking and packing.  Infestation starts at the stalk end of the fruit, resulting in small, circular, water soaked spots that are soft.  Gradually, fruit rots and emits foul smell.  Avoiding injury to fruit during harvest and transit will prevent disease occurrence.

Heart Rot or Stem Rot and Root Rot

The disease is caused by Phytophthora cinnamoni and Phytophthora parasitica.  Infection due to P. cinnamoni is limited to areas of warmer and low rainfall areas.  On the other hand, P. parasitica causes heart rot in warmer and somewhat drier areas.  This organism is commonly seen in India.  Poor physical condition of the soil and inadequate drainage are responsible for spread of the soil and frequently associated with alkaline soils but is not limited to them only.  In this, green leaves turn yellowish green and tips turn brown.  The central whorl of leaves when affected will come out with a gentle pull.  Basal portion of the leaves shows signs of rotting and emits foul odour.  Providing adequate drainage in the field, selection of healthy material for planting and treating suckers with cowdung slurry or biodynamic preparation could manage the disease.

Leaf Spot/Yellow Spot

Leaf spot occurs frequently in moist, warm, climate of eastern India.  Small water soaked areas developed on leaves, which gradually enlarge.  The affected portions become pale yellow in colour and gradually dry up.  This disease is also caused by Phytophthora spp.  Control measures are similar to heart rot.

Yellow spot affects both plants and fruits and is caused by a virus (tomato spotted wilt), which is transmitted through thrips from hosts such as Emilia sanchifolia, a well-known composite weed.  Eradicating weed hosts may help in checking spread of this disease.


Majority of the pests and diseases can be effectively kept under check by judicious maintenance of microclimate.  The pests can be controlled by an integration of physical, cultural and biological methods including plant-based preparations permitted.

Following Preparations are used for Control:

  • Dilute 1 litre of cow urine in 10 litre of water and wet the whole plant at the rate of 200-300 litre/ha at regular intervals.
  • 12.5 kg of fresh cow dung and 12.5 lit of cow urine are collected in earthen pot and mixed thoroughly with 12.5 litre of water.  The pot is covered and the mixture is allowed to ferment for a week.  Occasionally it is stirred with a stick.  After a week of fermentation, the mixture is filtered and 100 g of lime is added.  The obtained concentration is diluted at 1: 10 ratio (One part solution in 10 parts of water) and sprayed on crop at the rate of 200-250 litre per hectare.
  • 2% Neem oil mixed with any detergent powder @ 40-50 g for 100 litre is used as spray solution.
  • Neem seed kernel extract (NSKE) can be used as a prophylactic (preventive) before the onset of pests.
  • Chili garlic soup is effective as an insect repellent against most of the insects.
  • Tobacco tea is effective against most of the pests.
  • About 500 gm of tobacco leaves, 1 kg of neem kernel, 500 g lime powder, 500 g datura leaves and 500 g pods & seeds of oleander (Nerium oleander) are powdered and mixed together, then soaked in 15 litre of water for 15 days.  On alternate days, the mixture needs to be stirred with a stick.  After 15 days 1 litre of filtrate is mixed in 15 litre of water and sprayed on the crop.  It is enough for 2.5 ha and is a multi–pests repellent.
  • Cow dung spray minimizes disease development.  A suspension of fresh cow dung (500 g in 10 litre of water) is prepared and strained through a muslin cloth.  The suspension is sprayed on the infected crop twice at weekly interval.




An organic formulation for Bio-composting of farm wastes in coffee plantation


The prosperity of Indian civilization was pivoted around cow. Cows were the symbol of measure of wealth. A person who possessed larger number of cows was considered wealthy. At present scientists are rediscovering the value of the unique combination of five products of the cow. The cow's urine as well as milk contains micro organisms which are useful in many ways. These organisms also produce substances, which have wide antibiotic activity and they kill or inhibit the growth of microbes involved in food poisoning. Urine of cow contains microorganisms, which help the growth of many plants.
Numerous useful formulations are presently being produced by different organizations from the products of cow. Cow's urine has been used as medicinal agent since ages. The Ayurvedic practitioners are also attempting medicinal formulations containing cow-dung, buttermilk and ghee mixed with other herbs. These formulations are important from agricultural point of view also. Vermicompost from cow dung is not only a substitute for chemical fertilizers but is even superior. Similarly, the insectrepellant is being produced by extracting herbs like neem with cow's urine. The panchagavya, an organic formulation used for improved composting is unique combination of five products of cow (cow dung, urine, milk, curd and ghee) and other products / byproducts of plant origin.

Methodology for Preparation of Panchagavya for Bio-composting

The methodology used in preparation of these substances should necessarily be based on scientific considerations. The benefit from these products could be much more if preparations are standardized on scientific and technological parameters. Special attention must be given to active ingredients and their stability under different conditions of temperature and the process which would suit and yield products of optimum efficiency. The above ingredients were mixed and incubated for 15 days under shade in a plastic barrel covering with net cloth by stirring daily twice in the morning and evening. Fresh cow's products were used as they have anti-microbial activity. The activity will decline over storage due to oxidation of compounds like phenols. Some fractions of urine exhibit greater activity and residue remaining after evaporation shows maximum anti-microbial activity due to high salt content and existence of other components with greater anti-microbial activity. Milk contains some valuable micronutrients, carotinoids, flavones, phenolic compounds, steroids, vitamins and several compounds. After 15 days of incubation, preparation called Panchagavya was utilized for composting one tonne of farm wastes/cherry husk/pulp @ of 2.51 diluted in 50 litres of water. It was sprinkled on each layer of moist FYM while preparing composting heaps. The results of recycling of coffee processing wastes in coffee plantation through systematic Biocomposting revealed that composting of coffee pulp and cherry husk with use of Panchagavya narrowed the C:N ratio compared to control at all stages indicating its relevance for faster bio-composting. The rate of reduction of C:N ratio in heaps inoculated with Panchagavya and Phaenerocheate chrysosporium was similar. Thus effectiveness of Panchagavya could be comparable to Phaenerocheate chrysosporium, a very efficient lignolytic and cellulolytic fungi. The PH and electrical conductivity were also measured for testing the maturity of compost and were within the desired level in all the pulp composting treatments. In cherry husk composting, un-inoculated control showed higher electrical conductivity compared to inoculated treatments which is not desirable for good quality compost. The manurial value of compost (Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium) prepared with use of Panchagavya was superior over un-inoculated control. The beneficial microorganisms from Panchagavya and their establishment in the rhizosphere with use of compost may improve the plant growth, crop yield and suppress plant diseases. It is a well-known fact that the indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides have been proved harmful for soil environment and human health. Engineering the rhizosphere using beneficial bio-inoculants through compost may lead to improved soil quality and plant nutrition which ultimately leads to sustainable farming practice.

Cost of Preparation
The cost of Panchagavya was worked out to be Rs. 43/ litre (including cost of collection of ingredients and preparation). The quantity of Panchagavya used per tonne of compost raw material was 2.5 litres, which cost about Rs. 107.

Even the cost of other commercial microbial decomposing cultures range between Rs. 100 to 120 per tonne of compost raw material. However, the quality of the commercial products is a main constraint. We can trust the quality of Panchagavya as it is of organic origin.


Cow Pat Pit (CPP) 


Cow Pat Pit is known as CPP and is a specialized type of compost. It refers to cow manure mixed with crushed egg shell and basalt dust, then put into a 12 inch deep pit lined with bricks. The dung is fermented, together with the preps 502-507, for a period of 3 to 4 months. It is applied in the evenings during the cooler months.

From fungal and bacterial plate tests of the CPP, it appears there is a wide range of colonies or families of fungi and bacteria which have proliferated during the fermentation of the original cow dung material and also from what has been gained from the biodynamic preparations BD502-507.

It makes sense that the quality of the CPP will depend very much on the quality of the original cow dung and in particular what type of fodder the cows have been eating. Obviously if the milk that cows produce from eating good quality grass grown biodynamically, can be made into superb tasting yoghurt, quark or cheese, the dung from such grass will also be (not superb tasting) but of a superb aroma that will make very good CPP. This is something that the discerning farmer can gradually learn to recognize. Relating dung aroma to dung quality to grass quality and then soil quality.

In a country such as India where the cow is highly venerated and the fertility quality of the cow dung is recognized, it is hardly surprising that the Indian farmer has taken hold of the concept of CPP with great enthusiasm. Indian farmers have developed this biodynamic activity to a high degree since 1994 and now in 2006 there are large amounts of CPP being made and used throughout India and also supplied to farmers converting to BD. CPP is a very effective way of spreading the influence of the compost preparations 502-507 over a large area of farmland, orchard or garden. 60 kgs of cow dung gives about 30-35 kgs of CPP after fermentation. When it is mature, it is mixed with water at the rate of 1kg in 40 litres of water per acre. This means one CPP pit should be enough to cover 40 acres.  It should be stirred for at least 10 minutes as this encourages good bacteria development. For larger areas the greater amount of liquid can be stirred in a 200 litre drum with the tripod stirring arrangement or with the Virbela flowform for 15 minutes before using.  It can be sprinkled or sprayed over the land. If it is sprayed onto trees or foliage, it should be first strained through a fine mesh.

Uses of CPP

The well made CPP has within it all the energies associated with the biodynamic preparations 502-507. It will also contain a wide range of beneficial fungi and bacteria and growth promoting hormones, which can be very helpful in many areas of agriculture and horticulture. It has a wide range of uses.

  • Use as a ground spray at 1kgs per acre CPP to 40 litres of water. Soak overnight prior to application, stir for 10 minutes, if necessary strain through a cotton cloth, and spray as required.
  • Stir with preparation BD500 at 25gms BD500 to 100gm-1kg CPP. Add during the last 15 minutes of stirring.
  • Use as a soil inoculant over land being converted to BD/organic management.
  • Use as a soil or foliar feed on all crops at all stages except close to harvest. It can be sprayed every 7 or 14 days. Best sprayed in the evenings. Excellent for all field crops, i.e. wheat, lucern, paddy and potatoes. Also mangos, papaya, all tropical fruits and citrus, apples, stone fruit, avocados, grapes, coffee and tea.
  • Use on the soil around all fruit trees as a soil inoculant or soil conditioner. Use before any mulching is applied around the trees.
  • When used as a foliar feed on all fruit trees, it will strengthen the plants against possible fungus or insect attack. Apply every 14 days before and after flowering.
  • Stir with any liquid manures at approx. 50gm CPP per gallon.
  • Dissolve in water and use as a liquid manure in its own right.
  • Take a handful of CPP, add water to make a slurry and apply as pruning paste to stop bleeding and help healing.
  • Apply CPP slurry to the barks of trees to stimulate cambium growth. This strengthens the bark and brings the good soil micro organisms up onto the tree.
  • Use to dip roots of all young trees, shrubs, or grapes prior to planting. This will encourage new root development.
  • Soak seeds in CPP slurry overnight before sowing. If not overnight, soak for at least 30 minutes, dry off, and sow immediately.
  • Soak seed potatoes for 1 hour before planting. Dip potatoes and dry before planting.
    This seems to help control late blight.
  • Cuttings can be soaked in CPP slurry overnight to enhance root development.
  • Use as one component of the sequence of BD sprays of BD500, BD501, and CPP in which BD502-507 have been incorporated. This brings the effects of all the BD preparations onto the land over a short period. This seems to give strength and quality to the plants.
  • It can be used to inoculate compost heaps where there is a shortage of biodynamic preparations. Use 1kg of CPP in 40 litres of water for each 5 metres of compost and pour into holes along the top of the heap.


Making the Pit

Making Cow Pat PitChoose a site with good drainage, well-shaded and aerated. A vegetable garden is ideal. Dig a pit 90cm x 60m x 30mm deep (3ft x 2ft x 1ft)

Line the side of the pit with used bricks. Ensure that the bricks are wet prior to placing the dung. The bricks are a good medium for the walls of the pits in that they absorb moisture, and can be watered to keep the dung from drying out.
The bott
om is left as bare earth. The pits can be made in series of up to 100 pits in a group with a central path in between two double rows, or some system that suits the farms' needs.
The pits are usually situated within a shade house which is usually roofed with thatch. This will keep the pits cool during the hot months and stop the dung from drying out, and will be shelter against the rain during monsoons. Make sure the shade house is high enough to work under.





Making the CPP

Collect 60kgs of cow dung from cows preferably fed on biodynamically grown fodder. No concentrates or grains should be fed two to three days before collecting the dung. Add water by sprinkling it over the cow dung if dry. Cow dung should not be too dry or too wet. The dung should be firm as this facilitates the breakdown processes.It is mixed with 200 grams of powdered egg shell. Heat egg shells in a hot oven for ten minutes which will aid the grinding of the shell into powder and 300 grams of powdered basalt dust. If there is no basalt, use blue granite quarry dust or bore well soil instead. Sprinkle the basalt rock or bore well soil, and crushed egg shells, over the cow dung. Knead (mix) for 10 - 30 minutes.







Adding prepsSprinkling egg shellsKneading CPPThe kneading of the dung is important to aerate it. You will notice the consistency will change. Some farmers mix for as long as 1 hour.

Place the dung mixture into the pit. When filling the pits make sure that they are not filled more than a brick and a half deep (12cm). Any deeper would take too long to breakdown into humus.
The dung should not be tightly packed. Smooth off the top of the dung.


Make six holes 2 inches (3-4cm) deep after gently patting the dung into the pit.

Insert 3 sets of preps BD502-506 individually into the holes by placing each into a handful of compost, i.e.  3 sets of BD502 in a handful of compost into hole #1,3 sets of BD503 in a handful of compost into hole #2, etc., etc.Then cover over the holes.Stir BD507 in 350ml of clean water for 10 minutes.Add 1/2 of stirred BD507 into the remaining hole, then sprinkle the balance evenly over the entire pit and the jute bag that will cover the pit.


Covered pitSprinkling 507Putting BD507 in pit

Place a wet jute sack over the cow pat pit to maintain moisture. (Waterproof covers should be raised at one side to allow water to run off and air to circulate.)

Once a month gently turn/aerate with a garden fork, leaving the surface smooth and covered on completion to avoid excessive drying. If manure worms -- Eisenia foetida (gold banded lavender colour) or Lumbricus rebullus (small red) are not already present they can be introduced t
o aid the later stages of break down.After the first month, turn each week. This will speed up the breakdown process.
Remove mature CPP in 3 to 5 months. When ready the CPP will be well broken down with a good humus content. It will have a good earthy smell. It can be used straight away, or stored in an earthen pot in a cool place. Maintain moisture and use within 6 months.The empty pits can be refilled again. 


*Contents adapted from




Kew and Mauritius are the varieties grown in Kerala.  Mauritius is recommended for commercial cultivation for table purposes and distant marketing, due to its shorter duration, better fruit quality, keeping quality and transportability.  Kew is recommended for processing industry


Main season of planting is April-May and August-September, but can also be planted in all months except during heavy rain of June-July. The best time for planting is August to get higher yield. During summer months, if there are no summer showers after planting, irrigation should be given three weeks after planting for proper establishment

Cropping system

Mauritius can be grown as a pure crop in garden land, reclaimed lowlands and wetlands and as an intercrop in coconut and newly planted rubber plantations. In rubber plantation, it can be grown for the first 3-4 years only.

Land preparation

Pure crop

 Prepare the land by digging the area to be planted at 90 cm width in rows/ strips, leaving the interspaces undisturbed. However, ploughing can be adopted in level land. Planting is done in paired rows of 45cm distance between rows and 30cm between suckers. Suckers may be planted in triangular method in the paired rows. Interspace between the paired rows is kept at 120-150cm. Contour planting is ideal in sloppy areas to prevent soil erosion.  About 30000 suckers can be planted in one ha.

Intercropping in coconut garden

 Land preparation, spacing and planting are the same as described above in pure crop. There can be three-paired rows in between two rows of coconut.  Coconut tree basin should be kept free.  About 20-22000 suckers can be planted in one ha.

Intercropping in rubber plantations

System of planting is in paired rows at 45 x 30cm. Either one or two paired rows can be planted in between two rows of rubber depending on the spacing of the rubber planting. About 20000 suckers can be planted in one ha.

Wetlands / lowlands

Pineapple is highly sensitive to water stagnation and high moisture regimes. Hence it is important to provide good drainage, if grown in wetlands. In paddy lands, pineapple is planted in paired rows at 45 x 30cm spacing on ridges taken at 60-90cm height, depending on the water table and drainage requirement. The ridges are separated by drainage channels having 60cm width. The width of the ridges varies from 120-150cm. Wherever water stagnation and poor drainage are expected, a wider and deeper channel is given in between ridges.  About 25-30000 suckers can be planted in one ha.

Selection of suckers

Suckers are selected from disease and pest free healthy plants. Suckers are to be graded into those having 500-750g and 750-1000g. The graded suckers are planted in different blocks or plots, to get uniformity in growth and flowering. Bigger suckers give early yield.


After preliminary land preparations, planting is done in small pits of 10-15cm depth at a spacing of 45cm between rows and 30cm between plants in the rows. There is no need to plant the suckers in trenches.


Apply compost / FYM at the rate of 500 gm per plant at the time of planting. Also apply rock phosphate at the rate of 20 gm per plant and bone meal @ 50 gm per plant.  It will be ideal to apply the compost/ FYM, rock phosphate and bone meal in the pits taken for planting.  Six weeks after planting, apply 250 gm cowdung or vermi compost, 50 gm neem cake, 50 gm groundnut cake, one gm azospirillum and one gm phosphobactor for each plant and mild earthing up is done.  Apply 1.5 g of SOP in liquid form along with cowdung solution at an interval of 6, 10, 14, 18, 22 and 30 weeks after planting for each plant.


Wherever irrigation facilities are available, providing irrigation in summer months at two weeks intervals results in good fruit size and high yield. If there is no irrigation facility, the crop should be scheduled for harvest before summer months (before March).

Weed control

Hand weeding can be adopted in between plants and spade weeding in interspaces.  Weeds in interspaces can be controlled by intercropping with ginger, coleus, brinjal, bhendi etc.  It can also be controlled by sowing green manure crops like sunn hemp or daincha which can be used as green manure for pineapple by 2-3 months.

Flower induction

For inducing uniform flowering, 25 ppm ethephon is applied on physiologically mature plants having 39-42 leaves (7-8  months after planting ). The solution for application in 1000 plants is prepared by adding 1.25 ml of ethephon ( 3.2 ml of 39% ethrel or 12.5ml of 10% ethrel ) in 50 litres of cowdung solution. Pour 50 ml of the prepared solution to the heart of the plant during dry weather conditions (when there is no rain during the time of application ).

Flowering starts by 30 days and completes within 40 days of growth regulator application. Fruits will be ready for harvest by 130-135 days after the application of growth regulator. Harvest over different months / seasons could be obtained by carefully phasing / planning the planting and growth regulator application.

Plant protection

Sun burn

During summer months it is necessary to protect the fruits from scorching sun by putting dried grasses, coconut or arecanut leaves.


Root rot / heart rot / fruit rot caused by Phytophthora sp., Pythium sp., Fusarium sp., etc are common in poor drainage conditions. Providing drainage is most essential. The water table should be at least 60 cm below the soil surface. Badly affected plants should be destroyed. To prevent disease problems biocontrol agents can be used.  Two weeks after planting, apply Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 2 g per plant in liquid form.  Four weeks after planting, apply Trichoderma @ 2 g per plant in liquid form.  Repeat its application if any diseases are observed.


Mealy bugs (Dysmicoccus brevipes / Pseudococcus bromeliae ):

 Mealy bug is a serious problem in pineapple.  For its control, sanitary measures are to be adopted. The plot should be kept weed free. Apply Verticillium @ 1 gm per plant in liquid form for the control of mealy bug.

Ratoon cropping

The plant crop after harvest can be retained as ratoon crop for two more years. After the harvest of the plant crop, chopping the side leaves of the mother plant should be done for easy cultural operations. The suckers retained should be limited to one or two per mother plant. Excess suckers if any should be removed. Earthing up should be done. Other management practices are same as for the plant crop.

KAU Adhoc Package of Practices Recommendations for Organic Farming

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Quality People, Infrastructure & Work Culture for Quality Technology, Products & Services. Merit alone counts for quality suitable for the purpose. One has know-how only when it is proven in real life.Copyright © 2010 Pineapple Research Station, Kerala Agricultural University. Best viewed in IE 5.5 or above, 1024x768 screen, scripts enabled. Last modified: 23 Jun 2014. Webmaster: Dr. P. P. Joy, Associate Professor & Head, Pineapple Research Station (Kerala  Agricultural  University), Vazhakulam, Muvattupuzha, Ernakulam District, Kerala, India, PIN-686 670, Tel. & Fax: +91 485 2260832, Cell: +919446010905, E-mail: Constructive comments, suggestions and criticisms are most welcome and please mail to