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hf {]tbmKw

ap ]cntim[nptm

       ans Bhiya\pkcnp thWvS coXnbn hfw sImSpWw ap ]cntim[\bneqsS am{Xta CXp km[np. 

       ]cntim[\bvmbn asSpptm Cmcy {inpI

       D]cnXen\npw NpNhdpI \opI. 

       1520 sk.ao Bgn BIyXnbn IpgnsbSppI. 

       IpgnbpsS Hcp`mKp \np 3 sk.an I\n av AcnsSppI

       Cs\ tiJcn ap ISemkntem XpWnbntem CSpI  

       Ipw, apw, \on \mbn IqnepI  

       C\n av NXpcn \ncpI.

       CXns\ \membn `mKnp tImtWmSptIm hcp `mK FSppI. 

       FItZiw Ac Intem amIpIphsc Cs\ sNpI 

       XWenepWn hynbp knbnempI. 

       IjIs t]cpw apwhnhcfp aSnb t^mdw ]qcnnp knbnempI. 

{intWvS Imcy   

       Hcp Iyjn دp\npw ]e efn \nmbn 10.12 kmnfpambn FSpWw. 

       ap shbnev DWmXncnm {inpI  

       hcnsbpw Nmensbpw IpgnIfpsSbpw AcnIn\npw kmn tiJcncpXv  

       hf{]tbmKw \Snb DSs\ kmn tiJcnmXncnpI  

       hynbp ]m{Xn asSppI.  

       t^mdw ]qcnnp Ihdn\pnemm adcpXv    

]cntim[\imebn ans cmk]{XnIcWw an Aenp tNnp ehWfpsS Afhv, sNSnp e`np Afhnepfvf ]mIyP\Iw, `mhlw , mcw ChbpsS Afhv apXembh  ]cntim[ntijw tNt WvS hfw, ip]mi sNpXmWv

apw kmnfnt\msSmnv AbbvtWvS hnhc  

tImUv \  em_v \ (kmn Abvp DtZymKس sImSppXv)

1.Pn              Iyjn hnIk\ bpWnv     ]mbv         hntPv

2.Irjnmcs t]cv  
3.Irjnens kt \
/ t]cv  
4.ap ]cntim[\m^ens ASnm\n GsXmw IrjnmWv \nti thWvSXv
(s\IrjnmWv thWvSsXn GXn\pw Fpw ImWnpI).  
hnfIfpsS t]cv. hnkvXow
/ Fw  
ap kmn tiJcn XobXn  

 

{][m\ hffpw kkyt]mjI aqeIfpw

 

hfns t]cv

t]mjIaqeI
(iXam\n)

]mIyP\w
(N)

`mhlw
(P2O5)

mcw
(K2O)

I

cmkhf

 

a)   t\hf

1.   bqdnb

46.0

-

-

2.    AtamWnbw kt^v

20.5

-

-

3.  kq t^mkvt^v (knn)

-

18.0

-

4.  tdmv t^mkvt^v

-

28.3

-

5.   aqdn t^mkv

-

20.24

-

6.  ayqdntbv Hm^v s]mmjv

-

-

50-60

b)                 tImw]vsfIvkv

1.   AtamWnbw t^mkvt^v

16.0

20.0

-

2.  ssU AtamWnbw t^mkvt^v1

8.0

46.0

-

3.  ^mIvSwt^mkv 20:20:0:15

20.0

20.0

-

4.  tImw]vsfIvkv 17:17:17

17

17

17

c)                  Iqphf

     

1.   anIvkvN 9:9:9

9

9

9

2.   anIvkvN 12:6:12

12

6

12

3.  anIvkvN 10:5:20

10

5

20

II

       ssPhhf

 

a)      km{oIrX hf

1.      Fps]mSn (ipnsNmXv)

3.4

20.25

-

2.      Fps]mSn (ipn sNbvXXv)

1.2

25.30

-

3.      ayhfw

4.1

3.9

0.3-1.5

4.      thn ]nmv

5.2

1.0

1.4

5.      ISenmv

6.5-7.5

1.3

1.5

b)      aph

1.      ]mWIw

1.57

0.25

0.18

2.      Imenhfw (F.Y.M)

0.4

0.3

0.2

3.      Bn ImjvTw

0.8-1.6

0.4-0.6

0.3-1.0

4.      tImgn ImjvTw

1.0-1.8

1.4-1.8

0.8-0.9

5.      Itmv

0.7

0.25

0.5

6.      Nmcw (I¡cn)

0.73

0.45

0.53

7.      Nmcw (ASpv)

05-1.9

1.6-4.2

2.3-12.0

8.      anc Itmv

1.5

0.4

1.8

 

PohmWp hf  

\t\{X sImWvSv ImWphm km[nm _mIvSocnb, BIvSnt\m ssaskpI, ^wKkpI, BKI, t{]tmtkmhI XpSn a\pjys imkv{X hnm\n\v Cpw ]cn]qambn IogSphm Ignnnm ]e kqvaPohnIfpw ImWsSp Hcp AqX {]]amWv av.  ChIfpsS \ni_vZ tkh\w \s Bcy`cnXcmpp.  kqva PohnI Cm av sNSnbpsS hfv A\ptbmPya.  kqa PohnIfn Nnebn\w, tcmK DWvSmphbmWv. Fm IqSpX kqva PohnIfpw sNSnIfpsS hfbn KWyamb kzm[o\w sNepphbmWv.  Ch sNSnIġv Bhiyap ]mIyP\Iw, `mhlw XpSnb aqeIsf e`yamp {]{Inbbn {]apJ ]v hlnpp.  IqSmsX Ch tlmtamWpIfpw apw ]pdsSphnv sNSnIfpsS hfsb XzcnXsSp pp. 

PohmWphfw

Nne kqva PohmWpsf kPoh cq]n antem sNSnbntem DtNv DXv]mZnnp hfsfbmWv PohmWp hf Fv hnfnpXv.  asmcp hn[n ]dm ss\{SP BKncWnt\m, Pen Atebamb t^mkv^dkv ehWsf tebcq]nempXnt\m Ignhp sas kqva PohnI ASnb Hcp Dev]w. 

kqva Pohn hfw hnn ]pcntbm Asæn an tNtm, sNSnbpsS thcp]Sen Fnpp.  C{]Imcw sNSnbpsS thcn\v kao]p kqvaPohnI an hyXnbm\ hcpn AhbpsS Fhpw ssPhoI {]h\hpw hnnpp.  X^eambn sNSnbpsS hf XzcnXsSpphmt\m, Asæn km[mcW KXnbn sNSnv hensSpphm Ignbm Nne aqeI BKncWw sNphm ]p cq]n Bn Xophmt\m km[npp. 

PohmWphfw XmdmpXn\v 3 Xcw kqva PohnIsfbmWv D]tbmKnpXv. 

(I)  Ubtkmt{Sm^nIv PohmWp (Diazotrophic microorganisms).

(II)  t^mkvt^v embI PohmWp (Phosphate solubilising microorganisms).

(III) ssatmssdsk  (Mycorrhizae). 

 Ubtkmt{Sm^nIv PohmWp hf 

PohmWphffn {][m\shbmWv Ubtkmt{Sm^nIv PohmWp hf. ImcWw sNSnIġv apJyambn thWvS ]mIyP\Iw (N) F aqeIw Ch kw`mh\sNpp.  Aconse ss\{SPs\ AtamWnbbmn amphm Ignhp kqvamWp PohnI ASnbnphbmWv Ccw hf.  hmbphn ASnbnp 80 % ss\{SPs\ AtamWnbm, ss\t{Sv Fo cq]fnemn sNSnIġv Ch \evIpp.  hnfIġp thWvSXmb 30% apX 70% hsc ss\{SPs\ Cu hf{]tbmKw aqew \evIphm km[npw. PohmWphf DWvSmphm D]tbmKnp PohmWpfpsS kz`mhw A\pkcnv Ahsb \membn XcwXncnnpWvSv. 

A Aktm_mIv (Azotobacter)

Cu PohmWp (_mIvSocnbw) an kzX{ambn hknv Aco nse ss\{SPs\ AtamWnbbmn ampp.  Cu _mIvSocnb HcmWvSn Hcp slIvS en\v 20 apX 25 Intem{Kmw hsc ss\{SP \evIphm klmbnpw.  hnfIfpsS 30 % ss\{SPs Bhiyw \ndthm Chbvv km[npw.  IqSmsX sNSnIfpsS hfsb klmbnp Nnebn\w hnman\pI, CtUm AknIv Aw (IAA), Pn{_nv Aw (Gibberellic Acid)XpSnb kkytlmtamWpIfpw Dev]mZnnpp. 

D]tbmK{Iaw

Ic{]tZifn IrjnsNp GXp hnfIġpw Cu _mIvSocnb ASnb hfw D]tbmKnmw.  CXv sXv, aco\n, Icnv, ]dnI Fnhbvv Ghpw tbmPnhbmWv. 

1.  hnn ]pcp coXn 

GItZiw 250 {Kmw apX 500 {Kmw Aktm_mIvS IĨ D]tbmKnv 5apX 10 Intem{Kmw hnv D]Ncnmw.  CXn\mbn Aktm_mIvS ASnb PohmWp hfhpw, hnpw, Bhiyn\v shhpw (500 apX 1000 anoen) tNv \Xpt]mse Cfn tbmPnnv 30 an\np t\cw XWen DWnb tijw \\hp an hnXbvmw.  Ch bmsXmcp ImcWhimepw shbnen hv DWcpXv. 

2. thcpI app coXn 

250 {Kmw apX 500 {Kmw PohmWphfw apm en shw D]tbmKnv Ipgv ]cphnemnbXn\ptijw ]dnp \Sp sNSnIfpsS thcpI Cu emb\nbn 20 an\nv t\cw apnhtijw \Smw.  5 apX 10Intem{Kmw hnpIfn \npw e`np ssXIfpsS thcpIfn ]pcphm CXv aXnbmIpw. 

3  an tNp hn[w 

Cu hfw DWn s]mSn NmWIhpamtbm, anc Itmpamtbm 1: 25 A\p]mXn Ien an tNmw.  6 amkw ImessZLyap hnfIġv Cu hfw Hcp slIvSdntev 1-2 Intem{Kmapw, 6 amkn IqSpX {]mbaphbvv 2-4 Intem{Kmapw thWvSnhcpw.  Hcp hjw {]mbamb sNSn Hn\v 50 - 100 {Kmapw Hcp hjn IqSpX {]mbamb sNSn Hn\v 100 - 200 {Kmw hfw cWvSv {]mhiyambpw tNp sImSpmw. 

B Atkmkvss]dnw (Azospirillum)

Aktm_mIvSdns\tmse Aconse ss\{SPs\ AtamWnbbmn amphm Ignhp asmcp _mIvSocnbbmWv CXv. 

Atkmkvss]dnw {_koekv, Atkmkvss]dnw ent]ms^dw ChbmWv {][m\s cWvSn\.  ssXI thcp ]nSnnm klmbnp tlmtamWpI Ch IqSpX Dev]mZnnpXn\m IpcpapfIv apXemb sNSnIfpsS IqSssXI Dev]mZnnpXn\pw CXv D]Icnpp.   

D]tbmK{Iaw 

Aktm_mIvS D]tbmKnp Afhnepw coXnbnepw CXv D]tbmKnmw.  ]dn Irjnv ]nb Hcp PohmWp hfamWv CXv.  IqSmsX s\Irjnpw D]tbmKnmw. 

thcp]nSnnpXn\mbn t]mfno _mKpIfn \ndbvp an Intem{Kman\v 25 {Kmw F tXmXn Cu hfw tNmw.  IqSmsX IpIfpw hnIfpw Cu hfw ASnb emb\nbn 15 an\nv t\cw apn h tijw \m ssXIġv s]sv thcp]nSnpIbpw, IqSpX ]pjvSntbmsS hfcpIbpw sNpw. 

C  ssdtkm_nbw (Rhizobium)

Aconse hmXI cq]nep ss\{SPs\ ss\t{SmPt\kv (Nitrogenase) Fsskw D]tbmKnv AtamWnbbmn amphm Ignhp Hcp ]cmZ _mIvSocnbw BWv CXv. Ch ]bdph sNSnIfpsS thcpIfn apgI DWvSmn (aqem_pZ/Root Nodules) AXn hknptm am{Xta Aco ss\{SPs\ AtamWnb cq]nemphm IgnbpIbpp. skkv_m\nb (Sesbania) t]mep {]tXymIbn\w sNSnIfn ans apIfnep ImWvUnemWv apgI {]XysSpXv.  HmtcmXcw ]bdp sNSnbnepw hyXykvX C\w ssdtkm_nbw _mIvSocnbfmWv aqem_pZ DWvSmpXv.  Dgpv, sNdp]b, Xphcb, \neSe, tXmb, skkv_m\nb Fnhbvv {_mbnssdtkm_nbw kv]ojnkpIfmWv DNnXw.  DZmlcWambn (Brady rhizobium species cowpea group). aqem_pZ 2-3 BgvN {]mbw Fnb sNSnIfpsS thcpIfnemWv IWvSphcpXv.  Cu apem_pZ s\SpsI apdnm AhbpsS D`mKv Npa \ndw ImWphm km[npw.  seKv lotamtm_n (Leg haemoglobin)F hI hkvXphmWv CXn\p ImcWw.  Cu hkvXp aqem_pZġnSbnse HmIvknPs Afhv {IaoIcnpXpsImWvSv shfp\ndnep aqem_pZ ]b sNSnv henb {]tbmP\w sNpn.  hfbvmhiyamb ss\{SPs 70 % apX 80% hsc sNSnIġv \evIphm Cu hfn\v km[npw. 

D]tbmK{Iaw

hnn ]pcnbmWv sskm_nbw IĨ D]tbmKntWvSXv.  Hcp Intem ]bdn\v 2.3 {Kmw ssdtkm_nbw IĨ F tXmXn XteZnhks In shůntem, ic emb\nbntem Ien Ipgp cq]nemWw.  AXn\p tijw hnpI Cu an{inXhpambn Iqnbnfn XWen DWWw. 

sNSn \v 20 - 25 Znhkw Ignm Bhiyamb ss\{SP sNSnv e`npw.  AXpsImTWvSv ASnhfambn 20 In.{Kmw ss\{SP Hcp slIvSdn\v \evIWw.  ]bdp h IqSpXembn Irjn sNbvXv Cu _mIvSocnbbpsS {]h\s NqjWw sNmhpXmWv. 

D Atkmf (Azolla) 

ip Pen s]mnnSv hfcpXmb ] sNSnbmWv CXv. kmhn\ntbkv F kkyhn`mKnse Atkmsfknsb F kkyIpSpw_nsSpp. Atkmfbpambn klPohnXn Ignbp \oe lcnX BKbmWv A\m_o\ Atkmf (Anabeena azolla).  Cu BKIfpsS icocn slntdmknpI (Heterocysts) F t]cn AdnbsSp {]tXyI Xcns tImi ImWsSppWvSv.  Ccw tImifn shmWv Aco ss\{SPs\ AtamWnb Bn ampXv. Ccw AtamWnb cq]nep ss\{SPs\ Atkmf AXns hfbvv D]tbmKnpIbpw Atkmf AgpIptXmsS an tNcpIbpw sNpp.  IqSmsX t^mkv^dkv, s]mmknbw, \mIw, Ccpv Fo t]mjI aqeIfpw an\v \evIpp.   

D]tbmK{Iaw

X\nhnfbmbn hfn s\hben tNp sImSppItbm, kwbpambn s\nt\mtSmw Irjn sNpItbm sNmw. 

s\v-Atkmf kwbp Irjn coXnbn Rmdv \v 10 Znhkn\p tijw ]mSv slIvS Hn\v 500 Intem{Kmw F tXmXn ]pXpXmbn tiJcn Atkmf RmdpIġnSbn hnXdWw.  20 Znhkn\Iw CXv ]mSv hfv \ndbpw.  Cu kabw ]mSv \nv shw Cdn s\n\nSbn  Nhpn XmgvWw.  AXn\p tijw hoWvSpw shw Ibn Ahtijnp Atkmf hfcphm A\phZnbvmw.  Cu Atkmfbpw 30-40Znhkn\p tijw an Nhpn XmgvtWvSXmWv.  IXncnSpXphsc Cu {]{Inb XpScmhpXmWv.  Hmtcm {]mhiyhpw Dtiw 20 Intem{Kmw hsc ss\{SP an tNsSpp.  tIcfn hncnv Irjn kabv Atkmf tNmhpXmWv. 

II  t^mkvt^v embI kqvamWp PohnI 

an ImWsSp t^mkv^dkv ehWfn sNdnb iXam\w am{Xta Pen ebnp cq]n ImWsSppp.  Fm Nne kqva PohnIġv {]kvXpX t^mkv^dkns\ Pen ebnp cq]nemn Xophm Ignbpw.  Ccns kqva PohnIġv Nne DZmlcW NphsS sImSpncnpp.

_mIvSocnb 

       _mknekv ]hn lmknbkv

       _mknekv t]mfn anIvkm

       _mknekv kpekv

       kptUmsamWmkv ]yqnUm

       kmtmsamtWmkv kv]ojokv   

BIvSnt\m ssaskpI

       kvs{S]vtm ssakkv kv]ojokv

^wKkpI 

       Bkv ]Pnekv ss\P

       Bkv ]Pnekv ^vfmhkv

       Bkv ]Pnekv Ahmtamdn 

       ta ]d kqva PohnI ASnb D¸ hnn ]pcn D]tbmKnmhpXmWv.   

PohmWp hf tNptm {intWvS Imcy 

       PohmWp hf tNp an ssPhhf e`yX Ddv hcpnbncnWw.  

       ans AXzw 6.5 \pw 7.5 \pw CSbn \ne\nWw.  

       PohmWp hffpw cmkhffpw Hnv D]tbmKncpXv.  Cu cWvSp hffpw D]tbmKnptm NpcpnbXv 15 Znhks CSthfsbnepw DWvSmbncnWw.. 

       PohmWp hf tN tijw sNSnIġv PetkN\w Ddp hcpWw.  

       PohmWp hf agbpw NqSpw G¡msX kqnWw.  

       IoS\min\nI, cmkhf FnhtbmShpw PohmWp hf kqncpXv.  

       PohmWp hf, IĨ ]mbvn\p apIfn \ntinncnp Imebfhn\v ap]mbn (Expiry date) D]tbmKnncnWw. 

ssatmssdk

sNSnIfpsS thcpIfpambn _sp ImWsSp Hcn\w Ipanfp(Fungus)IfmWv 'ssatmssdk' (Mycorrhizae).  Chbn Nnebn\ Imn hfcp ss], bqmen]vkv Fo hrfpsS thcns D]cnXenepw Nnebn\ s\v Hgnp asm hnfIfptSbpw thcns Dnembpw (DZm: Kvtfmakv ^mknIptew (Glomus faciculatum) Kvtfmakssat{Imkvt]m(Glomus microspore) ImWsSpp.  an \np Pehpw, t^mkv^dkv XpSnb aqeIfpw hensSppXn Ccw IpanfpI klmbnpp.  IqSmsX sNSnIfpsS tcmK{]Xntcm[ tijn hnnphm\pw Chbvv km[npw.  C\nep IpanfpI ASnb IĨtdm, atm D]tbmKnv Irjnmv CXns\ {]tbmP\sSpmhpXmWv. 

PohmWphf cmkhfġv ]Icambn D]tbmKnphm\pX Fm an tNp hffpsS ImcyaX hnnpXn\m cmkhffpsS D]tbmK Afhn KWyamb Ipdhp hcpphm klmbnpw. 

ssPhhf {]tbmKw

cmkhffpsS A\nb{nXhpw AanXhpamb D]tbmKw ]cnnXnbpsS kpenXmhsbXs amnadnp ImgvNbmWv  Cv \mw IWvSphcpXv.  IrjnbnSfnse ans BtcmKyw \ne\ndpn kpnc Irjn km[yampXn\p {]mhnI amw ssPhIrjn Ahew_npIsbXmWv.

ssPhhffn {][m\sXv NmWIamWv. {][m\ aqeIsmw kqva aqeIfpw CXn ASnbnpXn\m, kkyhfbn NmWIn\v kq{][m\ ]mWpXv. 25 SNmWIn\nvslIvSsdmn\v 112 Intem{Kmw]mIyP\Iw, 56 Intem{Kmw `mhlw, 112Intem{Kmw mcw Fnh e`yamIppWvSv.  tImgnmcw t]mep hffn Im_-ss\{SP IqSpXembXn\mepw t]mjImwiw IqSpXembXn\mepw ]dnhnfIġv Gsd KpWw sNpp. tImgnmcnse ]mIyP\Ins Awiw sNSnIġv hfsc Ffpn e`yamIppsh sahpapWvSv. asmcp {][m\ ssPhhfamWv _tbmKymkv dn. CXv D]tbmKnpI hgn ]dn hnfIfpsS hnfhpw KpWtabpw cpNnbpw \ndhpw apw KWyambn h[npsav ]e ImjnI ]coWfpw sXfnbnpp. anctmpt]mep ssPhhfġv ASpnsS Gsd {]m[m\yw knnnpWvSv. kkyhfbvv Bhiyamb FsskapI, tlmtamWpI, hnman, Bn _tbmnIvkv apXembh shantmv Asæn anctmn Bhiym\pkcWw ASnbnpWvSv.  anctmkvv D]tbmKnv Irjn sNpXpsImWvSv tcmK_m[ Ipdbpsapw DXv]fpsS KpWta h[npsapw hnhn[]T\fnsXfnnpWvSv.km[mcWItmpWvSmm 6 amktmfwthWvSnhcptm 11/2 apX2 amʯn\pnshantmv DWvSmnsbSpmw. ASpfbnse ssPhmhinjvS ^e{]Zambn hn\ntbmKnm\p Hcp amKw IqSnbmWv anctmv \nmWw.

ssPhhf ans `uXnI-cmkLS\bn {]tbmP\Icamb amw hcppp.  ssPhhf an AgpIntcptm Bn_tbmnIv t]mep Nne hkvXp ]pdsSphnppWvSv. Chsb BKncWw sNpXp sImWvSv IoS-tcmK_m[sb sNdpm sNSnI Icpp t\Spp.Nocbnse Cepn tcmKw ssPhhf{]tbmKneqsS \nb{nXamIppsh Nne \ncoWfpsSbpw ASnm\w CXmWv.

]apfIv ssPhIrjn coXntbmSv hfsc \ coXnbn {]XnIcnpXmbn ]e ]T\fpw sXfnbnpp. tIcf ImjnI khIemimebpsS ip]mi {]Icw apfIn\v slIvSsdmn\v 75:40:25Intem{Kmw {][m\ kkyaqeIfmb ]mIyP\Iw, `mhlw, mcw Fnh \tIWvSXpWvSv. IqSmsX 20-25 S F IWn ssPhhfamb NmWIhpw \IWw. shmbWn ImjnI tImtfPn ASpnsS \Snb Hcp ]coWn cmkhfġp ]Icw ssPhhf D]tbmKnp coXn ]T\ hnjbamn.  ip]mi {]Imcap ssPhhfw s]mXphmbn \InsmWvSv, cmkhfġp ]Icw hnhn[ ssPhhffmb thn]nmv, tImgnmcw, anctmv, NIncntm IqSmsX ]nehffmb ioasm, ]b hK sNSnI Fnh \IpIbWvSmbn. IqSmsX ssPhhf{]tbmKw Xopw HgnhmnsmWvSv cmkhf am{Xap]tbmKnp IrjncoXnbpw ip]mi {]Imcap kwtbmPnX hf{]tbmKhpw ]coWn DsSpn. 

cmkhfġp ]Icw thn ]nmv D]tbmKntm, Ghpw sas hnfhv AXmbXv slIvSsdmn\v 21 S ]apfIv e`yambn. tImgnmcw D]tbmKntm 20 S ]apfIv e`np. khIemime ip]mi {]Imcap hf{]tbmKneqsS 18.6 S hnfhmWv e`nXv. cmkhf am{Xap]tbmKnp Irjn coXnbneqsSbmIs, Ghpw Ipd hnfhmb 9.6S am{Xta e`yambpp. ]apfIp t]mep ]dn hnfIfn ssPhIrjncoXnbpsS {]m[m\yhpw {]tbmP\hpw ta]d ]coWn \npw XnIpw hyamIpp.

anc Itmv

hnp hcp P\kwJybpw PohnXmhiyfpw ]cnlcnsSWsan ImjnI taJebnse Dev]mZ\aX hnntWvSXv AXymt]nXamWv. Pp- kkymhinjvS NogpIn cq]sSp lyqakv (Humus) AYhm tZw F ]ZmamWv ans `uXnIhpw, cmknIhpw, ssPhnIhpamb KpWhntijfpsS ASnm\ LSIw. ans Dev]mZaX AXnse kqvamWpfptSbpw tZntbpw Afhns\ B{ibnmWncnpXv. h\mcfnse an 5%tZw DWvSmbncnptm\psSIrjnbnSfn shdpw 0.5% apX 1% hscbmWv tZw ASnbncnpXv.

anse tZmwiw DbpXn\p ancI \ ]p hlnppWvSv.ancI IjIs an{Xambpw Iebmbpw {]hnpp.  GItZiw 3000 C\nep ancI DXmbn IsWvSnbnpWvSv. ImgvNbnsænepw{]Imins\Xnsc s]sv {]XnIcnpIbpw, ]pIfnmsX Blmcw s]mSnpIbpw sNp Hcp khntij PohnbmWv anc. hmbvpnsep aXcnIfpw av BlmciIefpw kqva PohnIfpsS kmnymepw A\mfns a\mepw s]mSncbvpp. C{]Imcw s]mSnc `Wkm[\ IpSnen ]e Xcnep FsskapIfpambn Iev cmkob hnLS\w kw`hnpp. XpSv ancbvv Bhiyamb t]mjILSI hensSpXn\p tijw ]eXcnep kpva PohmWp FsskapI, tlmtamWpI Bn _tbmnpI Fnh ASnb apw av ssPhmhinjvSfpw Ipcpbmbn hnknpp. Ccnep `uXnIhpw cmknIhpamb {]h\fpsS ]cnWnX^eamWv anc Itmv cq]sSpXv.  A\pIqe kmlNcy \In ancsb hfp {]{Inbsb thanIĨ (VermiCulture) Fv hnfnmw.

ancIsf Bgn ImWsSphsbpw D]cnXen ImWsSphsbpw cWvSmbn Xcw Xncnmw.

1.  Bgn ImWsSph

Ccw ancIsfbmWv IrjnbnSfn km[mcWbmbn \mw ImWpXv.  3 ao XmgvNbn hsc ImWsSmhp Ch hwih\hn\mbmWv ans D]cnXen FpXv.  {]XnIqe kmlNcysf AXnPohnphm Ignhp  ChsbbmWv 'IjIs an{Xw' (Friends of farmers) Fv hntijnnpXv.

DZm: s^cnan CtemtK (feritima elongeta)        

hfqdp an [mcmfambn ImWsSp henb IpcpI CeIfpsS {]h\^eambmWv DWvSmIpXv.  Blmc kmZ\w ans Bgfn hv \SpXn\m Ccw ancI Itmv \nmWn\v tbmPnhb.

2.  D]cnXen ImWsSph  

ans D]cnXene ssPhmhinjvS am{Xw Xnp PohnpHcn\amWv Ch.  ]nIfpsSbpw ap PohnIfptSbpw CcbmIm kmyXbpXpsImWvSv Xpdmb ev  Chsb hfphm km[npIbn. BbXn\m A\pIqe kmlNcyn Chsb hfn hwih\hv \Sphm km[npw.  

DZm : sFkn\nb t^mbnnUm (Eisenia Foetida) bq{Unekv bqPn\nb(Eudrilus eugenia)

ans Dev]mZ\aX \ne\nWsan PohnX irwJebnse hnhn[ InIfmb av, PohmWp, kkyPme, a\pjy-arKmZnI Chbvsmpw bmsXmcphn[ tImhpw Xm coXnbn ssPhP\yamb ]Zm am{Xw D]tbmKnpsImWvSp IrjncoXnI Ahew_ntWvSnbncnpp. Acw IrjncoXnbmWv ssPhIrjn (organic farming) AYhm kpncIrjn (Sustainableagriculture) Fv hntijnnpXv. kpnc Irjnbn ancbvpw anc Itmn\pw KWyamb ]pWvSv.          

       anc Itmv \nmWw 

D]cnXen ImWsSp ancIsf D]tbmKnv ssPhmhinjvSsf hmbphns  kmnyn hnLSnnptm Inp Idpp s]mSn AhinjvSsbmWv anc Itmv AYhm anc hfw (vermi compost) Fv hnfnpXv.  Poh\p anc, kqva PohmWp,  ancsImq, tZw FnhbpsS Hcp an{inXamWv  anc Itmv.

       anc Itmv \nmWw ASpf AhinjvSfn \nv

1.    45 x 30 x 45  sk. ao hnkvXrXnbnep XSnsImWvSptXm, mnv sImWvSv \nn ]c ]m{Xtfm (Basin ) CXn\mbn D]tbmKnmw.  

2.    XSnsnbmWv D]tbmKnpsXn kpjnc C Hcp mnv jov s]nbpsS ASnbn Cm XSn s]sv tISmIpXv Hgnhmmw.

3.    XSnsn t_kns Ghpw ASnbnembn aqv sk. ao I\n s]mSn aWepw AXn\p apIfnembn 5 sk. ao I\n NIncnbpw hncnpI

4.    AXn\ptijw Hcp \nc DWnb NmWIhptam Itmtm hnXdnbnv ancsb \nt]npI  

5.    Hmtcm Znhkhpw ASpfbn \npw Inp AhinjvSIptdsbmbn CXn Cp sImSppI.  

6.    NmpsImtWvSm, XpWnsImtWvSm aqSn Itmn\pn t\cnv kqcy{]Imiw ]XnpXns\ XSbpI.  

7.    BgvNbnsemcn ssPhmhinjv` Cfn sImSppI.

8.    HmtcmZnhkhpw Itmn\pnse \\hv ]cntim[npI. \\hv IqSpXembn IWvSm ISemkv IjWtfm, Cuw BKncWw sNp ]Zmtfm Cv Cfn sImSppI.

9.    s]ntbm, t_knt\m AhinjvS sImWvSp \ndp Ignm HcmgvNtbvp  IqSn kqnpI.

       anc Itmv \nmWw  hmWnPymSnm\n

1.    shw sInnSm \w sXcsSpv 2.5 ao \ofhpw1 ao hoXnbpw 40 sk; ao: XmgvNbpap IpgnsbSppI. av \ncv t]mImhn[w Nppw IpsImtWvSm atm sIpI.

2.    IpgnbpsS ASn`mKhpw av hifpw \mbn ASnpdnpI.

3.    IpgnbpsS ASnbnembn Ipdp s]mSnaW hnXdpI.AXn\papIfnembn NIncntbm, sImn\ndpnb sXmWvSn IjWtfm \ncpI. 

4.    XpSv Icnbne, IjWfmnb hmgnWvSn, hmgS Fnhtbm av ssPhhinjvStfm, NmWIhpambn 8 : 1 F A\p]m Xn Ien hnXdpI.  D]cnXen¶pw 30 sk. ao. Dbcn hsc AhinjvS \nt]npI.

5.    AhinjvS Cv ]v (10) Znhkw IgnXn\p tijw 500apX 1000 hsc ancsb (0.5-1 In.{Kmw) Ipgnbn \nt]npI.

6.    Asæn asmcp Ipgnbn ssPhmhinjvS NmWIhpambn ta]d A\p]mXn Cfn tbmPnnv ]v Znhkw IgnXn\p tijw CXns\ asmcp Itmv Ipgnpn \nt]nmhpXpw XpSv ancsb CdmhpXpamWv.

7.    ancsb Cdp kabv ssPhmhinjvSn Pens Awiw A[nIw DWvSmbncncpXv. 

8.    ancsb CdnbXn\ptijw Ipgn sXtme Asæn Nmnv aqSpI.

9.    Bhiym\pkcWw Ipgnpn shw XfnpsImSppI.

10.    BgvNbnsemcn ssPhmhinjvS CfnsImSppI.

11.    C{]Imcw Xmdmnb 'anc Itmv' 25 apX 45Znhkn\pn Idpp   s]mSnv anchfambn cq]mcsncnpw.

       Itmv kw`cWw

Xmdmnb anc Itmv \ow sNpXn\v HcmgvN ap]mbn PetkN\w \nnhbvpI ]mIamb Itmv Ipgnbn \nv \ow sNbvXv kqcy{]Imiw \mbn ]Xnp ev cWvSpaqv aWnq kabtbvv Iq\ IqnbnSpI. (kqcy{]Imins kmn[yn ancI Iq\bpsS ASnbntebvv Cdpp).  AXn\ptijw Iq\bpsS apIfn \npw Iptdsbmbn Itmv \ow sNpI.  Ghpw ASnbnembn ImWsSp ancIsf hoWvSpw Ipgnbntebvv \nt]nv `mKnIambn No AhinjvS \In Itmv Xmdm {]{Inb XpScmhpXmWv. \ow sNbvX Itmv DWn NmpIfnemn kqnpItbm, DWn AcnsSpv sNdnb mnIv IhdpIfnemn hn]W\w \SpItbm sNmw.

       anc Itmv \nmWn {intWvS Imcy  

1.    ancbpsS {][m\ i{Xpfmb Ddpv, Fen, ]nI Fnhbn \npw ]cn]q kwcWw \IpI.

2.    Itmv Ipgnp Nppambn IoS\min\nI hnXdpItbm, shffn Ien XfnpItbm sNbvXm Ddpns ieyw Hgnhmmw.  

3.    Fenieyw Hgphmm In he D]tbmKnpItbm, Ipgnp ]pdmbn Fen]mbtam tIv cq]nepff hnj]Zmtfm D]tbmKnpI.

4.    Itmv Ipgnpffnse Cuw 40%  A[nIw BImsX kqnpI. Itmnse A[nIw Pew \ow sNphm\mbn DWnb CeItfm, ISemkv IjWtfm Bhiym\pkcWw Cv Cfn sImSppI.

5.    Fcnhv, Dv, F Fnh ASnbnpff AhinjvS Itmv \nmWn\mbn D]tbmKncpXv.

6.    BgvNbnsemcn AhinjvS Cfn sImSppXv Nobens\ IqSpX klmbnpw.  

7.    Itmv ]mIambm AXv DS \ow sNtWvSXpw ]pXnb ssPhmhinjvS Cp sImSptWvSXpamWv.  

8.    Itmv Ipgnpffn bmsXmcphn[ IoS\min\nItfm, Ipan \min\nItfm D]tbmKnm ]mSn.  

9.    ssPhmhinjvStfmsSmw mnv IjWtfm, Ipn apdnItfm, \nt]nm ]mSn.  

        anc Itmv sImWvSpff {]tbmP\  

1.    km[mcW Itmv XmdmpXn\v  6 amkw kabw thWvSn hcptm, anc Itmn\v shdpw 30 apX 45 Znhkw am{Xw aXn.  

2.    km[mcW Itmnse ]mIyP\Iw, `mhlw mcw FnhbpsS iXam\w 0.7, 0.25, 0.5 BWv. Fm anc Itmn 1.5 %]mIyP\Ihpw 0.4 % `mhlhpw 1.8 % mchpw ASncnpp.

3.    kkyt]mjI aqeI sNSnIġp thKn hensSpmhp cq]nepw IqSnb Afhnepw ancItmn ASnbncnpp.

4.    anc Itmn hnman\pI, tlmtamWpI, Bn_tbmnpI apXemb sNSnIfpsS hfsb DtPnnp LSI ASnbncnpp.  

5.    anse kqva PohnIfpsS {]h\s XzcnXsSpphm Cu Itmn\v km[npw.  

6.    anse hmbp kmchpw Pekw`cWtijnbpw hnnphm klmbnpp.

7.    km[mcW ItmpWvSmptm DWvSmIp ZpKw anc Itmn\n.  

8.    anc Itmn apJy kkyt]mjI aqeI IqSmsX av kqa aqeIfpw ASnbncnpp.

9.    anc Itmv kkyfpsS tcmK{]Xntcm[tijn hnnpp.  

anc Itmv D]tbmKnpff IrjncoXn Poh\ an\v ]pXpPoh \In AXns mbn`mhw \ne\nm klmbnpp. ]cnnXnv lm\nIcamXpw ssPhnI kpncXbpffXpw kmnI t\apWvSmpXpamb HmWv anc Itmv \nmWhpw AXv D]tbmKnpff IrjncoXnbpw. Itmv \nmWn\mbn D]tbmKnp ancIġpw DWn ]mIsSpn Itmn\pw hn]W\ kmyX Cv GsdbmWv. AXn\m anc Itmv \nmWhpw ancIrjnbpw kzbwsXmgn IsWvSpXn\pw AXneqsS hcpam\w hnnpXn\pw DXpIp Hcp kwcw`amWv.

anc Itmv kulrZw, kpcnXXzw 

amen\y kwkvcWn\v DNnXamb hgnI IWvsSm\mImsX \wXncnbp \Kcn\pw \KchmknIġpw Bizmkw ]cp Hcp t]mwhgnbmWv anc Itmv \nmWw.  Jc- ssPh amen\y sXpw ]cnkc aen\oIcWanmsX \ncp]{ZhamnXom\p Ffphgnbpw AXv anc Itmmn ampI FXmWv. 

km[mcW Itmns\ At]nv anc Itmn\v taI \nch[nbmWv. km[mcW ]mIsp Inm \mep apX Bdv amkw hsc FSppsan anc Itmv Xmdmm shdpw 24 aWnq am{Xw aXn Fpam{Xa. F{X ZqK]qcnXamb amen\yhpw anc Itmmnbm shdpw cWvSv aWnq kabw sImWvSv ZpKclnXamIpw.  av Itmnt\m aqp aSv hfmwiw anc Itmn\pWvSv. IqSmsX sNSnIġv tcmK{]Xntcm[ in ]Iv \evIphm\pw ans AavfX Ipdbvphm\pw PemKncWtijn Iqm\pw sNSnbsS hf XzcnXsSpm\pw Hs anc Itmn\v Ignbpw. 

ancItmv bqWnv Xmdmp hn[w 

Smv \nmWw

km[mcW Hcp honse AhinjvS ]Zm kw`cnv kwkvIcnpXn\v 1.5 ao * 0.9 ao * 0.6 ao Afhnep SmmWv thWvSXv. \menp I\ap tlmtfm knav II sImWvSv CXp \nnmw. Smns ASn`mKmbn Pew hmp t]mIpXn\v 25 skoao \ofhpw 1/4sknao hhpap Hcp ]fmnv Ipg LSnnWw.  Smns ASn`mKw knav  D]tbmKnv _esSppIbpw Nppw 5 sknao hoXnbpw 2.5 skoao XmgvNbpap Hcp NmepWvSmn AXn shw sIn\npIbpw thWw.  Smn\v aosX Hcp Inse s{^bnan LSnnv hbvmw.  shbnepw agbpw sImmXncnbvm Smn\v ta¡qcbpamImw.        

anctmv ?

sFko\nb t^mbvnU, bq{Unkv kv]ojokv Fob\nw ancIfmWv Itmv Xmdmm \v Chsb s]mXpth  'B{^n ancI' Fp ]dbmw. Ch HcSnhsc hfcpw. Hcp ancbvv 50 ss]kbmWv hne.  tIcf ImjnI khIemimebpsS hnhn[ KthjW tI{, Xncph]pcs shmbWn ImjnI tImtfPv, anX{Xm\ntIX XpSnb m]\f \npw Cu {]tXyIXcw ancIsf hmmw.    

Itmv Xdm  

Smns ASn`mKv NmWIsmSn \\v 10 skoao I\n hnXdpI. AXn\v AtX ]NmWIw Hcp _WvSv t]mse 30 sknao hoXnbnepw 15sknao I\nepw hbvpI.  CXnemWv ancIsf hnXtdWvSXv. Fnv \mbn \\bvWw. Hcp \\ Nmv sImWvSv aqSpIbpw thWw. CSbvv Nmv \\bvm adcpXv. cWvSmgvN Ignbptm ancI ]NmWIn ISv s]ps]cpIm XpSpw. ]NmWIw hoWvSpw AtX coXnbn Smn \nt]npI.30 Znhkw Ignm Smn ancbvv `Ww sImSpmw.     

ancbvv Xo

AgpIn XpSnb ssPh]ZmfmWv ancbvv `nbvm Ffpw. Smns a[y`mKv thWw `Ww Cv sImSpm.  ASpfbn \npw Inp AhinjvS t\cnb I\n Znhkhpw CSpI.  AanXamb Fcnthm Fabtam D ]cm HgnhmWw.  Aev]w ]NmWIw IqsS tNv sImSpm Itmv  \nmWw Ffpw \Spw.  10 - 15 sk.ao IqSpX I\n `Ww Hnv Smn CSmXncnpIbmWv \Xv.  Smns Afhv IqSnbm anc Itmn\v ]Icw km[mcW Itmmbncnbvpw InpI. 

^vfmpIfnembmepww Smv \nnm e]cnanXnbp hoSpIfnembmepw Itmv \nmWw A\mbmkw \Smw.  CXn\v HcbSn hoXw \ofhpw hoXnbpw s]mhpap hosn aXn.  s]nbn sNdnb kpjncfp ]vfmnIv jov hncnv AXn\v aotX 4 Cv I\n Nc hncnv NIncn \ncn \mbn \\npthWw hncI \nt]nm Fp am{Xw. 

\nW coXn GXmbmepw Itmv cWvSv apv Znhkw IqSptm \\bvWw. Smn 75 iXam\sanepw Cuw \ne\nevWw FmXmWp IWv.  Smn icnbmb Cuw DWvsSnte anc \mbn XosbSppIbpw hwih\ \SpIbw Dq.  Nmv hncnv AXn shw Xfnv sImSpmepw aXn. 

Itmv tiJcWw    

Smn Itmkvv \ndp Ignm AXn\v aosX 30 sknao hoXnbnepw 10 sknao I\nepw ]NmWIw IensbmgnWw.  Fnv  \\ Nmv sImWvSv apSpI.  HcmgvN sImWvSv Smnse ancbpsS knwl`mKhpw Cu NmWIpgn Ibdpw.  AXv AtX]Sn Hcp Ipbntebvv hmcn hbvpI. Fnv Smnse Itmv apgph\pw hmcn \ shbn Inp knavv Xdbntem ]vfmnIv jon\v apIfntem Iq\Iqn hbvpI.  shbneSnptm Itmn _mnbp anc Iq\bpsS ASnbntebvv t]mIpw.  Atm ta`mKs Itmv hmcn ammw.  _mn ancItfbpw tNv hoWvSpw Smn \nt]nm Itmv DXv]mZ\w hoWvSpw Bcw`nbvmw.     

anc Itmv  - kq Itmv  

ImjnI khIemimebn anc Itmns KpWKWsf Ipdnv \nch[n ]T\  \SnpWvSv.  CXn \nv Dcpncnv hcp Ghpw {][m\ \nKa\w ip]mi sNbvXnp Afhn Itmv D]tbmKnm cmkhfns Afhv ]IpXntbmfw Ipdbvmw FXmWv.  anc Itmv D]tbmKntm shWvS XpSnb ]dnIfn 20 iXam\hpw, Xmfnbn 27 iXam\hpw apfIn12 iXam\hpw shcnbn 75 iXam\hpw hnfh[\hv  tcJsSppIbpw sNbvXp.   

Fmhonepw ancItmv

hnfh[\bmbncpp eysanepw cmkhffpsS AantXm]tbmKw hcpnh Zpc ^e Cv a\pjycmin A\p`hnv hcnIbmWv. CXn \nv Hcp Xncnv t]mv Cv A\nhmcyambncnbvpp.  CXn\p GI t]mwhgnbmWv anc Itmv.  IjIan{Xamb ancsb \apv hoSpIfntebv kzmKXw sNmw.  \n_vZ\mb Cu DghpImcs kmayw \mw C\nbpw ImWmsX t]mIcpXv.  \Kcnembmepw \mn]pdmbmepw amen\y \nm\n\v C\n ap hgnI tXSntmtIWvSXn. \Kcw tamSn ]nSnnmw; hoSpw ]cnkchpw hrnbmbn kqnmw Hmcw ssPhhfhpw, thWvSpthmfpw Inpw. 'Fm honepw ancItmv' - CXmbncns \psS ]pXnb ap{ZmhmIyw.

Itmv \nmWw

Ctmgp P\kwJym h\hv A\pkcnv cWvSmbncn Ccp]nbmw BWvtSmsS 830 tImSn IhnbpsamWv A\pam\npXv. C{Xbpw P\ġv Bhiyamb Blmcw e`yamWsan `tymev]mZ\w Ctm \nehnepXn \npw hnnWw.  `tymXv]mZ\w hnnWsan HpIn Irjnens hnkvXrXn IqpItbm Asæn imkv{Xob IrjncoXn Ahew_npItbm thWw.  CXn cWvSmas coXnbmWv {]mtbmKnIamphm km[npXv.  `tymXv]mZ\w ans ^e`qbnjvTXtbbpw AXnse t]mjIaqeIfpsS e`yXtbbpamWv B{ibnncnpXv.  kpenX hf{]tbmKneqsS ans ^e`qbnjvSX \ne\nphm km[nbvpw.  Fm A\nb{nXhpw AkpenXhpamb cmkhf{]tbmKw an\pw am\hcminv apgph\pw Hcp henb `ojWnbmbn amdnsmWvSncnpIbmWv. kpenX hf{]tbmKn ]mentWvS ]mIyP\Iw, `mhIw, mcw (N:P:K) FnhbpsS tZiob A\p]mXw 4:2:1BbncntWvSnbncptm 1991-92 Imebfhn D]tbmKnncp N:P:KA\p]mXw 5.9:2.4:1 Bbncnp. Fm 1995-96 hjfn Cu A\p]mXw8.2:2.5:1 Bbn hnpIbmWv sNbvXXv.  AXpsImWvSv ans ^e`qbnjvTXtbbpw kkyt]mjI aqeIfpsS e`yXbpw Ddp hcpp kpenXhpw kwtbmPnXhpamb (Balanced and Integrated) hf{]tbmKcoXnbmWv IjI A\phntWvSXv. \oXnbphpw kpenXhpw kwtbmPnXhpamb ssPh, [mXp, PohmWp hffpsS D]tbmKw sImWvSpw av Irjn coXnI sImWvSpw ans ^e`qbnjvTX \ne\npXns\bmWv kwtbmPnX kky t]mjI]cn]me\w (Integrated Nutrient Management-INM)Fp hnfnpXv. CXn\mbn Itmv, PohmWphf, asc Itmv, ]ne hfw FnhbpsS D]tbmKhpw ]bdph sNSnI CShnfbmbp, hnf]cn{Iaw Fo IrjncoXnIfpw Ahew_nmhpXmWv.

ans ^e`qbnjvTX \ne\npXn Itmp hfġv kn{][m\amb ]pWvSv.  

       Itmv hfw

kq\nb{Wn, ssPhmhinjvS kqvaPohnIfpsS kmnyn Nop s]mSnbptm Inp ]ZmamWv Itmv.kkyt]mjIapeI ASnbnpXpw Im_, ss\{SP A\p]mXw(C-N Ratio) IpdhpXpamb Hcp ssPhhfamWv CXv.

       Itmv \nmW XXzw 

_mIvSocnb, Ipan, BIvSnt\mssakdpI, t{]mtmtkmhI XpSnb hnh[ C\nep kpvaPohmWpfpsS {]h\^eambnmWv Itmv DWvSmIpXv.  hmbphns e`yX A\pkcnv HmIvknPs kmnynepw Akmnynepw kqvaPohmWpġv ssPhmhinjvSs hnLSnnphm km[npw.  kqvaPohmWp ssPh ]Zms hnLSnnptm DWvSmIp Duhpw Im_, ss\{SP, t^mkv^dkv, k^ apXemb aqeIfpw AhbpsS tImins tmtmmk \nmWn\mbn D]tbmKnpp.  

       Itmp \nmWns BhiyIX

ssPhP\yamb AhinjvS an tNptm AXn ASnbncnp kkyt]mjI aqeI sNSnIġv DSs\ hensSpphm km[npn. am{Xhpa AXn ASnbncnp Im_, ss\{SP A\p]mXw (C-N Ratio) hfsc DbXpambXn\m sNSnIfpsS hfbvv Xm¡menIambn tZmjIcamhpIbpw sNpp. Ccw AhinjvS an tNptm kqvamWp ss\{SPs knwl`mKhpw AhbpsS hfbvmbn D]tbmKnpXpsImWvSv ss\{SP hfsc Ipdp am{Xta e`nppq.  Cu kmlNcyw HgnhmpXn\p thWvSnbmWv ssPhmhinjvS Nobphm A\phZnv Itmmn an tNpXv.  IqSmsX an InSv NogpIptm DWvSmIphm kmyXbp hnjaqeI sNSnbpsS hfsb tZmjIcambn _m[npXn\pw CSbpWvSv.  t\scadnv, ssPhmhinjvS kqvaPohmWpfpsS klmbm Nobptm AXns hym]vXn IpdbpIbpw Im_, ss\{SP A\p]mXw Ipdv (20:1 AYhm AXn Ipdv) tZns (Humus)AhbnempIbpw sNpp. As\ Itmv ans `uXnIhpw cmknIhpw ssPhnIhpamb LS\bvv hyXnbm\w hcpn AXns ^e`qbnjvTX \ne\npp.

       Itmv Xmdm

Irjntmnse AhinjvS, IfI, ]ipsmgpntebpw SuWpIfnsebpw NpNhdpI, ASpfbntebpw Iimpimebntebpw AhinjvS Icnn NWvSn XpSnb ssPhP\yamb ]Zmsf Itmv \nmWn\mbn D]tbmKnmw. Itmv ]e coXnbn \nnmhpXmWv. 

1.  \mS coXn 

CXn\mbn 3 ASn Bgnepw 3 ASn hoXnbnepw Bhiym\pkcWw \ofnepw Ipgn FSppI. ]ipsmgpnt\mSv tNv Ipgn XmdmpXmWv DNnXw. ItmpIpgn NqSn \npw agbn \npw kwcnpXv A`nImayamWv.  ]ipsmgpn \npw \ow sNp AhinjvS, Nmcw Fnh Itmv \nmWn\mbn D]tbmKnmhpXmWv.  GItZiw Ac ASn L\n AhinjvS  hnXdnb tijw NmWIw shůn Ien XfnpItbm hnXdpItbm sNpI. Cu coXnbn IpgnbpsS D]cnXen \npw 1 ASn apX 1 1/2 ASn hsc Dbcn NpNhdpIfpw NmWIhpw amdn amdn \ndbvtWvSXmWv.Itmn\mbn D]tbmKnp AhinjvSfpsS kz`mhw A\pkcnv shw XfnpsImSppXv \nb{ntWvSXmWv. Ghpw Ahkm\w Ipgn apsImWvSv s]mXnp aqSWw. \mepapX Bdpamkn\Iw Ipgnbnse AhinjvS Itmmbn amdnbncnpw. Ipgnbvpn shw HenndmXncnphm {]tXyIw {intWvSXmWv.  NmWIns A`mh n bqdnbtbm, AtamWnbw kt^tm tNv ssPhmhinjvSfpsS Nob XzcnXsSpmhpXmWv.  

2.   CtUm coXn (Indore method)

Cu coXnbn Xmdmptm IpgnbpsS Bhiyan. CXn\mbn NpNhdpI Xpdmb ev hnXdnbnv NmWIw Ien XfnpI, ]ooSv CXns\ 4 apX 6 ao hsc \ofhpw 1 ao hoXnbpw 1 ao Dbchpap Iq\IfmpI.  CSbvnSbvv AhivjnS  XncnnSpIbpw  shw Hgnv \\v sImSppIbpw sNWw.  GItZiw 3 apX 4 amkw sImWvSv Ch Itmmbn cq]mcsSpp. Fm Iq\ IqpXn\pw XncnnSpXn\pambn sXmgnemfnIsf BhiyambXn\m Cu coXnbnep Itmv \nmWw sNehv IqSnbXmWv. am{Xhpa agbptSbpw NqSnsbpw ImTn\ym kkyt]mjIaqeyfpsS \jvSw DWvSmIpp FXpw CXns asmcp \yq\XbmWv.   

  _mwKvfq coXn ( Banglore method)

SuWpIfnse AhinjvS D]tbmKnp sImWvSv Itmv \nnmhp Hcp coXnbmWv CXv. CXn\mbn 5 ASn apX 30 ASn hsc \ofhpw 5ASn apX 8 ASn hsc hoXnbpw 3 ASn apX 4 ASn hsc XmgvNbp IpgnI FSpmhpXmWv. SuWn \npw A]w Zqsc amdn ]Snmdp `mKmbn thWw Itmp Ipgn XmdmtWvSXv.  IpgnbpsS ASnbnembn AcbSn L\n AhinjvS hnXdpI.  AXn\p apIfpembn 5 sk.ao. L\n taav hnXdpI. IpgnbpsS D]cnXen \npw 15 sk.ao. Dbcn hsc AhinjvSfpw apw amdn amdn \ndbvpI.  Ghpw Ahkm\w ap sImWvSv aqSn 5 apX 6 amkw hsc kqnm \ Itmv e`npXmWv.  KpWtaa hnnphm\mbn cmkhftfm PohmWphftfm tNp  sImSppXv \XmWv. IpgnbpsS A`mhn ta]d coXnbn AhinjvS 1 ao. Dbchpw 1 ao. hoXnbpw kuIcymap \ofnepw Iq\ Iqnbm 3 apX 4 amkn\Iw CXv Hcp hfambn D]tbmKnmhpXmWv. {Kma{]tZifn s]mXphmb Itmv \nmW ]XnIġv Cu amw Ahew_nmhpXmWv. 

       Itmns KpWtaa hnn

Itmv \nmWneqsS GItZiw 20% ]mIyP\Iw (N) hmXI cq]n (AtamWnb) \jvSsSpp.  Ipgnbn AhinjvS \nt]npIbpw Ahkm\w ap sImWvSv s]mXnp aqSn kqnpIbpw sNbvXm Cu \jvSw Ipdp IqSn Hgnhmmw. kq t^mkvt^v (5%)sslt{UmtmdnIv BknUv (1%) IcnsmSn, Adps]mSn, Pn]vkw, av ChbntesXnepsamv tNp sImSpm ]mIyP\Ins \jvSw Hgnhmphm km[npw. 

bqdnb shůn Ien AhinjvSn Xfnp sImSppXv Itmnse ]mIyP\Ins (N) Afhv Iqphm\pw t^mkv^mnIv hffmb tdmv t^mkvt^v (aqcnt^mkv/ cmPvt^mkv) tNpXv t^mkv^dns Afhv Iqphm\pw km[npp. 

km[mcWbmbn Itmv \nnphm FSpp  kabw Ipdp IqSn Ipdbvphm\pw KpWtaa Iqphm\pw Nne kqva PohmWpġv km[npw. Aktm_mIvS {IqHmtImw (Azotobacter chroocoecum) F _mIvSocntbbpw Akv]Pnenkv Ahmtamdn  (Aspargillus awamori), _mknekv t]mfnanIvkm (Bacillus polymyxa) Fo kqvamWptfbpw CXn\mbn D]tbmKnmhpXmWv.  ItmpIpgn \ndv Hcp amkw IgnXn\p tijamWv ta]d PohmWpsf \nt]npXv.  Itmv \nmWn kabssZLyw Ipdbvpp Fp am{Xa tZmwiw Dbn kkyt]mjIaqeIfpsS e`yXbpw Cu PohmWp Ddp hcppp.

          Itmv hfns {]tbmP\

1.    anse tZmwiw Dbn ans ^e`qbnjvTX hnnpp.

2.    tcmKmWp, IoSfpsS hnhn[ L, IfIfpsS hnpI Fnh Itmp \nmWn \inpp.

3.    anse AWpPohnIfpsS {]h\w XzcnXsSppp.  

4.    anse hmbpkmcw, Pe\na\tijn, Xm]\ne Fnh \nb{npp.

5.    _mjv]oIcWw aqew anew P\ejvSw Ipdbvpp.

6.    asmenv XSbpp.

7.    anse kqvaaqeIfpsS e`yX Ddp hcpn sNSnIfpsS hfsb ]cnt]mjnnpp. 

GXv Imemhbnepw GXn hnfIġpw btYjvSw an tNnsImSpphm ]p Hcp hfamWv Itmv.  ans mbn`mhw \ne\nn hnfIfpsS Dev]mZ\w hnnphm\pXIp Itmv, Hcp km[mcW Irjnmc\v sNehp IqSmsX \nnphm ]pXpw cmkhffpsS D]tbmKw Ipdbvphm km[npXpamb Hcp Da ssPhhfamWv.

shanhmjv

kky hfbvmhiyamb t]mjIaqeI, PohI, tlmtamWpI, Bn_tbmnpI, apXembh sNSnIġp s]sv BKncWw sNphm Ignbp coXnbn ASnbncnp {ZmhI cq]nepff Hcp ssPh t]mjIemb\nbmWv shanhmjv. ancItmn \npw D¸mZnnp {ZmhIcq]nepff Hcp ssPhhfemb\nbmWnXv-------v.

shanhmjv tiJcnpXn\pff eLphmb amw henb apX apSsmpanmsX IjIv sNmhpXmWv. CXn\mbn 20- 25 sk. ao Dbcapff mnIv s_bvkn FSpv AXns  ASn`mKv \Sphnembn 1 sk. ao hymkapff Hcp Zzmcw Cv Hcp mn hbvWw. shanhmjv tiJcnpXn\mbn Hcp _tm ap ]m{Xtfm s_bnkn\ns Iognembn hbvWw  Cu s_bnkns ASn`mKv Hcp ss\tem s\v hn shnsbSpv hncnWw. CXn\papIfn 5 sk. ao  Dbcn Nctem, Hmn IjWtfm Cv  AXn\p apIfnembn AtX I\n NIncnbpw CSWw. AXn\p apIfn  ssPh AhinjvSfpw NmWIhpw 8 : 1 F A\p]mXn Ien \ndbvWw. 10 Znhkġp tijw 100-200 Fw bq{Unkv bqPo\nsb Fbn\w ancIsf \nt]nWw.  BgvNbnsemcn ssPhmhinjvS CfnsmSppIbpw Bhiym\pkcWw shffw XfnpsImSppIbpw thWw. GItZiw 45 Znhk Ignbptm ssPhmhinjS Idp Itmmbn amdpw Atm shanjv tiJcnmhpXmWv. CXn\mbn ancIfSnb Itmn IqSn GItZiw 2 en NmWI shffw HgnWw. Cu shffw Itmnt\bpw AXneSnbncnp ancItfbpw IgpIn kmh[m\n Acnndn s_bvkns ASn`mKpff Zzmcw hgn Xmsg hncnp _n tiJcnsSpw.

Cs\ tiJcnp shanhmjv 4 - 5 Ccn shffw tNv t\n tijw  kkyfpsS CeIfn XfnpItbm Nphn Hgnp sImSppItbm sNmw. \gvkdnI, ]p¯InSnI, ]dnI, AemcsSnI, HmnUv, Bqdnbw, Fnhbvv CXp \ ssPhhfamWv. 

kkyfpsS hfbvmhiyamb Fm t]mjIaqeIfpw s]sp BKncWw sNphm ]nb hn[n shanhmjn e`yamWv. IqSmsX kkyfpsS hfsb klmbnp [mcmfw kqvamWp CXneSnbncnpp. Aconse ]mIyP\Is nXoIcnm\pw tebXzw Ipd `mhlns e`yX Iqm\pw ssPh hkvXpfnse skptemkns\ hnLSnnm\pw klmbnp ]eXcw kqvamWpfpw CXneSnbnpWvSv. IoS, tcmK {]Xntcm[tijnp klmbnp Bn_tbmnpIfpw hf XzcnXsSpp tlmtamWpIfpw CXn ASnbnpffXn\m CXns {]tbmKw, kkyfpsS hnfhpw KpWtaabpw hnnphm klmbnpp.

NIncntmdn \nv ssPhhfw

IbdpXv]mZ\n\p tijw ]pdpIfbp NIncntmdv HmwXcw ssPhhfambn D]tbmKnmw.  Ib t_mUns KthjW hn`mKamb tI{ Ib KthjW m]\amWv CXn\p ktXw hnIknnsSpXv.  

Cybn Hmtcm hjhpw 5 ew S NIncntmdv ]mgmbntmIppWvSv.  Itmv sNpXneqsS CXn \npw aqpetmfw S ssPhhfw DXv]mZnnmhpXmWv.  ssPht]mjI [mcmfw ASnbnp NIncntmdv ]e IbdpXv]mZ\ tI{fnepw ]cnkc aen\oIcWapWvSmppWvsSXpw ]pXnb kao]\s {]kamppWvSv. 

NIncntmdv ssPhhfambn cq]mcsSpp {]{Inb hfsc efnXamWv.  Ib KthjWtI{w Xmdmnb ]nv kv, bqdnbtbmsSmw NIncntmdn tNmWv Itmv XmdmpXv.  100In.{Kmw NIncntmdn\v 400 {Kmw ]nv kv tNWw.  AXn\p apIfn hoWvSpw NIncntmdpw ]nvkpw bqdnbbpw tNv shsamgnp sImSpv 30 Znhkn\Iw ssPhhfw XmdmIpw.  CXn 24:1  F A\p]mXn Im_Wpw ss\{SP\pw ASnbncnpp. 

efnXamb Cu kmtnIhnZybneqsS an\pw hnfIġpw Daamb ssPhhfamWv e`npsXv Ibt_mUv A[nIrX Adnbnp.

kaoIrX hf{]tbmKw 

t]mjIaqeIfpsS IehdbmWv ]dnI. [mcmfw ssPhmwihpw \ \ohmbpap aW Ie F amWv ChbpsS Irjnv A\ptbmPyw. ImjnI taJebn Cv \mw t\cnSp {]Xnk\v[nIġv ^e{]Zamb ]cnlmcw ImWm adnp IrjnapdI AXymt]nXamWv. ]dnhnfIġv Cv \mw Ahew_nnp hf{]tbmKw hffn am{Xw HXpn \n¡pIbmWtm.             
Hcp]s, cmkhffpsS {IamXoXamb D]tbmKw ]dnhnfIfnemWv IqSpX Fv ]dbpXmhpw icn. Ipd ImessZLyn\nSbn ]camh[n hnfshSpphm\p shen ssPhhfsf ]msS AhKWnpsImWvSp IrjncoXn an\pw AXn Irjnbndnbnp hnfbvpw Hw ]cnnXnpw F{Xam{Xw tZmjamWv hcpnhbvpXv Fv A[nIamcpw Nnnmdn. 

]dnrjnv {][m\w {]IrXnbpsS kw`mh\bmb ssPhhfw XsbmWv. cmkhf cwK{]thiw sNpXn\p ap]v \psS IrjnbnSsfmw Xs ssPhhf{]tbmKm karambncppshv \apdnbmw. Imenhfw, Fps]mSn, aXvkyhfw, Itmv, anctmv, ]nmpI, ]narKmZnIfpsS hnkyhkvXp, ]nehfsSnI Chsbmw Xs \ ssPhhffmWv. ]dnIfpsS hnfshSpn\p tijw hcp CeIfpw XWvSpw hfambn D]tbmKnmw. Fm ]etmgpw hnfIfpw XWvSpw hfambn D]tbmKnmw. Fm ]etmgpw hnfIfpsS AhinjvS IrjnbnSn\npw ]qambpw \ow sNpIbmWv ]Xnhv. ans LS\, hmbpkmcw, Pekw{KlWtijn, AWpPohnIfpsS {]h\w, t]mjIaqeIfpsS BKncWw Fnhsbmw sasSpp ssPhhf \n_\v[ambpw an tNtWvSXpWvSv. ]dnrjn sNptm sksmn\v 100 In.{Kmw NmWIsmSntbm, Itmtm; anc Itmtm ASnhfambn \IWw.    

]mWIw shůn Ien XSn HgnpXpw \XmWv IqSmsX \Xpt]mse s]mSn ]nmpI, shodv (Nmcw) Fnhbpw ]dnrjnv D]tbmKnmw. hcĨbpw IoStcmK_m[bpw sNdpm sNSnIġv tijn \Ip s]mmjns Ipdhp Xom Ignhp \mS hfw Nmcw am{XamWv. Nmchpw Ipmbhpw kamkaw tNv \mep en shůn \mbn Ien GXm\pw aWnq h tijw AcnsSpp sXfn\ocv IoS\nb{Wn\mbn sNSnIfn Xfnmw. Hcp hfsaXnep]cn IoS\nb{Wn\pw tcmK\nb{Wn\pw Nmcn\v IgnhpWvSv FmWv A\p`hw sXfnbnpXv. [mcmfw Imenhfhpw Nmchpw av AhinjvSfpw hfambn tNv \psS hophfn D¸mZnnp hgpX\, apfIv, shWvS FnhbpsS kzmZv {]tXyIw ]dtbWvSXntm. Hw KpWtabpw. Ch F{X \m thWsanepw tISpIqSmsX kqnpIbpw sNmw. ]e hntZi cmPyfnepw ssPhIrjnbnepsSbp D¸ġv hn hnebmsWnepw Bhiym GsdbmWv. karambn ssPhhf tNp an kqvaaqeIfpsSbpw ZznXobaqeIfptSbpw Ipdhv km[mcW ImWmdn. am{Xa, IoStcmK_m[bpw hfsc Ipdhmbncnpw. 

ssPhhffpw Ahbnse {][m\ aqeIfpsS  tXmXpw   

 

ss\{SP(iXam\w)

t^mkv^dkv (iXam\w)

s]mmkyw (iXam\w)

Imenhfw 

0.5

0.2

0.5

thn]nmv 

5.2

1

1.4

ISenmv 

7.5

1.5

1.3

Fps]mSn (DWnsmSnXv 4-Feb  

20

   

Fps]mSn (\ocmhnbn thhnv DWnsmSnXv)  4-Feb

     

22

   

aohfw

10- Apr

9- Mar

0.3-1.5

Nmcw 

0.5-1.9

1.6-4.2

2.3-12.0

_tbmKymkv kvfdn 

1.4-1.8

2- Jan

0.8-1.2

 

]nIfptSbpw arKfptSbpw hnkyhkvXp    

Imen

 NmWIw

0.3-0.4

0.1-0.2

0.1-0.3

 

aq{Xw

0.9-1.2

t\cnbtXmXv

0.5-1.0

BSv 

-ImjvTw

0.5-1.7

0.4-0.6

0.3-1.0

 

aq{Xw 

1.5-1.7

0.05

1.8-2.0

]n 

-ImjvTw 

0.55

0.5

0.4

 

aq{Xw 

0.4

0.1

0.45

tImgn

 -ImjvTw 

1.0-1.8

1.4-1.8

0.8-0.9

CeI hgn cmkhfw Xfnptm (]t]mjWw) 

sNSn an \nv thcpI hgn hfw hensSppXnt\m ^e{]ZamWv shůn Aenbp cmkhf \nnXAfhn tbmPnnv CeIfn Xfnp coXn. Cu coXnbneqsS km[mcW \Ip cmkhfamWv bqdnb. kqvaaqeIfpw Cu coXnbnepsS sNSnIġv \IpXv {]tbmP\w sNpw.

cmkhfw Xfnptm {intWvS Imcy 

icnbmb KmVXbn Xs emb\n XmdmWw. KmVX A[nIambm CeI IcnbpIbpw Ipdm ^ew IpdbpIbpw sNpw. km[mcW Hcp iXam\w hocyap (10 {Kmw bqdnb Hcp en shůn\v) bqdnb emb\nbmWv Xmfn, hgpX\, apfIv, Noc Fo hnfIġv D]tbmKnmdv. Nocrjnbn Hmtcm hnfshSpn\ptijhpw 1% hocyap bqdnb emb\n XfnpsImSppXv hnfhv hnnpw FmWv IWvSnpXv.

       agtbm, Imtm Dtm cmkhfw XfncpXv.

       XfncnSptmgpw ]qhnSptmgpw cmkhf{]tbmKw HgnhmpI.

       Imn\v A\pIqeambn CeIfpsS ASnhiv \Xpt]mse hoghw XfnpI.

       ]pXnb bqdnb am{Xsa CeI hgn XfnpsImSpm D]tbmKnmhq.

cmkhf IqSpXembn D]tbmKnpXv, {]tXyInv ]mIyP\I{][m\ambh (DZm: bqdnb) IoStcmK hnnm CSbmpw. Xsbpa cmkhf am{Xw IqSpXembn D]tbmKnpXv D¸ns KpWtasb {]XnIqeambn _m[npw F Imcyw admXncnpI.

Hcp skv etp hf{]tbmKcoXn

ans ^e]pjvSn, C\, Irjnbndp kabw Fnh IWnseSpv thWw hfns tXmXv \nbnm.

karnbmbn ssPhhffpw hnfIġmhiyamb cmkhffpw DsmnpsImWvSpff kwtbmPnXhf{]tbmKw hnfhv hnnpXn\pw cpNnbpw KpWtabpw sasSppXn\pw klmbnpw.  

 

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Quality People, Infrastructure & Work Culture for Quality Technology, Products & Services. Merit alone counts for quality suitable for the purpose. One has know-how only when it is proven in real life.Copyright 2010 Pineapple Research Station, Kerala Agricultural University. Best viewed in IE 5.5 or above, 1024x768 screen, scripts enabled. Last modified: 23 Jun 2014. Webmaster: Dr. P. P. Joy, Associate Professor & Head, Pineapple Research Station (Kerala  Agricultural  University), Vazhakulam, Muvattupuzha, Ernakulam District, Kerala, India, PIN-686 670, Tel. & Fax: +91 485 2260832, Cell: +919446010905, E-mail: prsvkm@kau.in. Constructive comments, suggestions and criticisms are most welcome and please mail to prsvkm@gmail.com.